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Warm Springs
Expedition Culture Geography People Maps Nature

The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs welcome you.

We are the Warm Springs, Wasco and Paiute peoples. When the Corps of Discovery first encountered us, our ancestors were living along the shores of the Columbia River centered near Celilo Falls and The Dalles, and in the high desert county of southern Oregon. As observed by Lewis and Clark, we relied upon the waters, the fish, the forests, and the land to maintain our ways of life. Those very same resources continue to provide livelihoods and ways of life for our many ...

Essential Questions

Geographical Location:
Date: October 22, 1805
City: Celilo Falls

Essential Questions

Relations between Lewis and Clark and the Indians

For Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery, their experiences with the Warm Springs and Wasco peoples were varied, at times cordial and friendly, yet at other times distrustful and openly hostile.
  • What were the contributing factors to this ambivalent relationship between the Indians and Lewis and Clark?
  • What are some of the long-term consequences of this relationship?
  • What are the Warm Springs, Wasco and Paiute perspectives on the significance of Lewis and Clark for Indian peoples? What do "Lewis and Clark" symbolize for Indian peoples, generally?

Role of Celilo Falls and The Dalles

The Celilo Falls and The Dalles sites were considered one of the most important fishing and trading centers of all of the northwest region.
  • What were the many economic, social and political dimensions and characteristics of the Celilo Falls and The Dalles sites?
  • What were the reasons for these sites being so important to the Indian way of life of this region?

Seasonal Round and Resource Management

The time-honored wisdom and stewardship shown in the seasonal round have continued to influence contemporary tribal planning and policy.
  • Describe the events and activities of the seasonal round, for spring to spring?
  • What particular cultural observances are associated with the activities of the seasonal round and what are the consequences of these observances?
  • What are some of the essential spiritual, ecological and social values and attitudes toward the water, fish, animals and plants that are ingrained in the seasonal round?
  • How has the traditional values toward the water, fish, animals and plants continued to influence contemporary tribal planning and policy, as for example, illustrated in the Integrated Resource Management Plan?

A Ten-Year-Old’s Perspective

You have a unique opportunity to listen to and accompany a ten-year-old Warm Springs boy has he guides your through this module. His name is Theron “Mish” Spino (Click to Access).
  • What are some of the key values his father, grandmother and grandfather are passing along to Mish?
  • What are some of the key activities Mish enjoys doing? How are those activities similar and how are they different from your own activities?
  • How does the Warm Springs Indian culture influence Mish and, in turn, is expressed in his life?
  • How do you believe Mish defines his identity?
  • In what ways is Mish's life and activities a part of the larger Warm Spring Indian community?
  • What must it have been like to be a 10 year old Warm Springs, Wasco or Pauite at the time of Lewis and Clark in 1805?

Sovereignty and Reserved Rights: History of Tribal and United States Relations

The history of encounter and engagement between the Warm Springs, Wasco and Paiute Tribes and the United States of American has had a defining consequence for the Indian peoples.
  • What were the major historical events and processes that have had a lasting effect on the Warm Springs, Wasco and Paiute ways of life?
  • Despite the rather harsh history of Euro-American contact (for example, from the consequences of disease, war and allotment), in what ways have the Warm Springs, Wasco and Paiute continued their cultural ways and values into the 21st century?
  • What are the legal principles as well as cultural and historical foundations underlying Warm Springs, Wasco and Paiute “sovereignty” and “reserved rights”?
  • How has that sovereignty been threatened?
  • How are the Confederated Tribes strengthening their sovereignty?