We have been studying moral reasoning and moral education intervention programs in athletic populations for 20 years, with a data base of approximately 72,000 individuals. Below find what we know about the process of moral reasoning and its effect on moral development.
1. Athlete populations score significantly lower on moral reasoning inventories than do non-athlete populations.
2. Male revenue producing sport athletes score significantly lower than non-revenue producing sport athletes do.
3. Females score significantly higher than males, either revenue producing or non-revenue producing.
4. Females scores are dropping and we predict they will converge with men's scores in 5 years.
5. Longitudinal studies of discrete competitive populations drop over a four-year period whether high school or college.
6. Moral reasoning scores of non-intervened athletic populations are decreasing at significant rates.
7. The longer one is in athletics, the more affected is one’s moral reasoning.
8. Intervention programs can have a positive effect on moral reasoning.
9. Effective intervention programs have a long-term effect on moral reasoning.
10. Moral reasoning is one facet of a highly complex process of moral development.
Female Student Athletes' Moral Reasoning 1987-2005
Sharon Kay Stoll, Ph.D.
The Center for ETHICS*
University of Idaho
Jennifer M. Beller, Ph.D.
Washington State University
Affiliate Faculty, University of Idaho
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