Canopy Architecture and the Environment
Austad, I., A. Skogen. 1990. Restoration of a deciduous woodland in western Norway formerly used for fodder production: effects on tree canopy and field layer. Vegetatio 88:1-20.

Aase, J. K. and F. H. Siddoway. 1980. Determining winter wheat stand densities using spectral reflectance measurements. Agronomy Journal 72:149-152.

Ahlrichs, J. S. and M. E. Bauer. 1983. Relation of agronomic and multispectral reflectance characteristics of spring wheat canopies. Agronomy Journal 75:987-992.

Allen, L. H., Jr., H. W. Gausman, and W. A. Allen. 1975. Solar ultraviolet radiation in terrestrial plant communities. Journal of Environmental Quality 4:285-294.

Anderson, M. C. 1964. Light relations of terrestrial plant communities and their measurement. Biological Review 39:425-486.

Anderssen, R. S., D. R. Jackett, D. L. B. Jupp, and J. M. Norman. 1985. Interpretation of and simple formulas for some key linear functionals of the foliage angle distribution. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 36:165-188.

Arp, G. K. and D. E. Phinney. 1980. Ecological variation in thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation. Environmental and Experimental Botany 20:135-148.

Ballaré, C.L., A.L. Scopel, and R.A. Sànchez. 1990. Far-red radiation reflected from adjacent leaves: an early signal of competition in plant canopies. Science 247:329-332.

Baldocchi, D. D., B. A. Hutchison, D. R. Matt, and R. T. McMillen. 1985. Canopy radiative transfer models for spherical and known leaf inclination angle distributions: A test in an oak-hickory forest. Journal of Applied Ecology 22:539-555.

Baldocchi, D. D., S. B. Verma, N. J. Rosenberg, B. L. Blad, Specht, and J.E. 1985. Microclimate-plant architectural interactions: Influence of leaf width on the mass and energy exchange of a soybean canopy. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 35:1-20.

Bao, Y. and E. T. Nilsen. 1988. The ecophysiological significance of leaf movements in Rhododendron maximum. Ecology 69:1578-1587.

Barnes, P.W., W. Beyschlag, R. Ryel, S.D. Flint, and M.M. Caldwell. 1990. Plant competition for light analyzed with a multispecies canopy model: III. Influence of canopy structure in mixtures and monocultures of wheat and wild oat. Oecologia 82:560-566.

Boote, K. J., J. W. Jones, G. H. Smerage, C. S. Barfield, and R. D. Berger. 1980. Photosynthesis of peanut canopies as affected by leafspot and artificial defoliation. Agronomy Journal 72:247-252.

Brach, E. J., A. R. Mack, and V. R. Rao. 1979. Normalization of radiance data for studying crop spectra over time with a mobile field spectro-radiometer. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 5:33-42.

Byrne, G. F., J. J. Landsberg, and M. L. Benson. 1986. The relationship of above-ground dry matter accumulation by Pinus radiata to intercepted solar radiation and soil water status. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 37:63-73.

Caldwell, M. M., T. J. Dean, R. S. Nowak, R. S. Dzurec, and J. H. Richards. 1983. Bunchgrass architecture, light interception, and water-use efficiency: Assessment by fiber optic point quadrat and gas exchange. Oecologia 59:178-184.

Caldwell, M. M., H. -P. Meister, J. D. Tenhunen, and O. L. Lange. 1986. Canopy structure, light microclimate and leaf gas exchange of Quercus coccifera L. in a Portuguese macchia: measurements in different canopy layers and simulations with a canopy model. Trees 1:25-41.

Caldwell, M. M., L. L. Tieszen, and M. Fareed. 1974. The canopy structure of tundra plant communities at Barrow, Alaska, and Niwot Ridge, Colorado. Arctic and Alpine Research 6:151-159.

Canham, C. D. 1989. Different responses to gaps among shade-tolerant tree species. Ecology 70:548-550.

Cannell, M. G. R., R. Milne, L. J. Sheppard, and M. H. Unsworth. 1987. Radiation interception and productivity of willow. Journal of Applied Ecology 24:261-278.

Campbell, G.S. 1990. Derivation of an angle density function for canopies with ellipsoidal leaf angle distributions. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 49:173-176.

Casal, J. J. and V. O. Sadras. 1988. Effects of end-of-day red/far-red ratio on growth and orientation of sunflower leaves. Botanical Gazette 148:463-467.

Chazdon, R. L. 1985. Leaf display, canopy structure, and light interception of two understory palm species. American Journal of Botany 72:1493-1502.

Christy, E. J. 1986. Effect of root competition and shading on growth of suppressed western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla ). Vegetatio 65:21-28.

Clark, J. A. and G. M. Follin. 1988. A simple "equal area" calibration for fisheye photography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 44:19-25.

Coffin, D.P. and W.K. Lauenroth. 1990. A gap dynamics simulation model of succession in a semiarid grassland. Ecological Modelling 49:229-266.

Comstock, J. and J. Ehleringer. 1985. Canopy dynamics and carbon gain in response to soil water availability in Encelia frutescens Gray, a drought-deciduous shrub. Oecologia 68:271-278.

Coulson, C. L. 1985. Radiant energy conversion in three cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 35:21-29.

Daughtry, C. S. T., V. C. Vanderbilt, and V. J. Pollara. 1982. Variability of reflectance measurements with sensor altitude and canopy type. Agronomy Journal 74:744-751.

Ehleringer, J. R. 1988. Changes in leaf characteristics of species along elevational gradients in the Wasatch-Front, Utah. American Journal of Botany 75:680-689.

Ewel, J., F. Benedict, C. Berish, and B. Brown. 1982. Leaf area, light transmission, roots and leaf damage in nine tropical plant communities. Agro-Ecosystems 7:305-326.

Fasheun, A. 1982. Interception of radiation and growth efficiency in field beans (Vicia faba L.). Agricultural Meteorology 26:221-229.

Fenner, M. 1980. The induction of a light requirement in Bidens pilosa seeds by leaf canopy shade. New Phytologist 84:103-106.

Fenner, M. 1980. The inhibition of germination of Bidens pilosa seeds by leaf canopy shade in some natural vegetation types. New Phytologist 84:95-101.

Fitter, D. J., P. H. Knapp, and J. W. Wilson. 1980. Stand structure and light penetration. IV. A sensor for measuring photosynthetically active radiation. Journal of Applied Ecology 17:183-193.

Floyd, B. W., J. W. Burely, and R. D. Noble. 1978. Foliar developmental effects on forest floor light quality. Forest Science 24:445-451.

Floyd, D. A. and J. E. Anderson. 1982. A new point interception frame for estimating cover of vegetation. Vegetatio 50:185-186.

Forseth, I. N. and J. R. Ehleringer. 1982. Ecophysiology of two solar tracking desert winter annuals. II. Leaf movements, water relations and microclimate. Oecologia 54:41-49.

Forseth, I. N. and A. H. Teramura. 1986. Kudzu leaf energy budget and calculated transpiration: The influence of leaflet orientation. Ecology 67:564-571.

Forseth, I. and J. R. Ehleringer. 1980. Solar tracking response to drought in a desert annual. Oecologia 44:159-163.

Geller, G. N. and P. S. Nobel. 1984. Cactus ribs - Influence on PAR interception and CO2 uptake. Photosynthetica 18:482-494.

Geller, G. N. and P. S. Nobel. 1987. Comparative cactus architecture and PAR interception. American Journal of Botany 74:998-1005.

Graser, E. A., S. B. Verma, and N. J. Rosenberg. 1987. Within-canopy temperature patterns of sorghum at two row spacings. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 41:187-205.

Green, C. F. 1984. Discriminants of productivity in small grain cereals: a review. Journal of the National Institute of Agricultural Botany 16:453-463.

Green, C. F. 1984. A description of seasonal interception of radiation by crops while the canopy is expanding. Photosynthetica 18:418-420.

Green, C. F., T. C. K. Dawkins, and B. Hunter. 1985. Influence of foliar applied chlormequat on radiation attenuation by winter barley canopies. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 105:213-216.

Green, C. F., P. D. Hebblethwaite, and D. A. Ison. 1985. A quantitative analysis of varietal and moisture status effects on the growth of Vicia faba in relation to radiation absorption. Annals of Applied Biology 106:143-155.

Hatfield, J. L. 1979. Canopy temperatures: the usefulness and reliability of remote measurements. Agronomy Journal 71:889-892.

Hatfield, J. L. 1989. Aerodynamic properties of partial canopies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 46:15-22.

Hatfield, J. L. and R. E. Carlson. 1979. Light quality distributions and spectral albedo of three maize canopies. Agricultural Meteorology 20:215-226.

Heathcote, L., K. R. Bambridge, and J. S. McLaren. 1979. Specially constructed growth cabinets for simulation of the spectral photon distributions found under natural vegetation canopies. Journal of Experimental Botany 30:347-353.

Hollinger, D. Y. 1989. Canopy organization and foliage photosynthetic capacity in a broad-leaved evergreen montane forest. Functional Ecology 3:53-62.

Holmes, M. G. and H. Smith. 1977. The function of phytochrome in the natural environment-I. Characterization of daylight for studies in photomorphogenesis and photoperiodism. Photochemistry and Photobiology 25:533-538.

Holmes, M. G. and H. Smith. 1977. The function of phytochrome in the natural environment. II. The influence of vegetation canopies on the spectral energy distribution of natural daylight. Photochemistry and Photobiology 25:539-545.

Holmes, M. G. and H. Smith. 1977. The function of phytochrome in the natural environment. IV. Light quality and plant development. Photochemistry and Photobiology 25:551-557.

Horton, R. 1989. Canopy shading effects on soil heat and water flow. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53:669-679.

Hutchings, M. J. 1976. Spectral transmission and the aerial profile in mature stands of Mercurialis perennis L. Annals of Botany 40:1207-1216.

Hutchison, B. A., D. R. Matt, R. T. McMillen, L. J. Gross, Tajchman, S.J., and J. M. Norman. 1986. The architecture of a deciduous forest canopy in eastern Tennessee, U.S.A. Journal of Ecology 74:635-646.

Hutchison, B. A., D. R. Matt, and R. T. McMillen. 1980. Effects of sky brightness distribution upon penetration of diffuse radiation through canopy gaps in a deciduous forest. Agricultural Meteorology 22:137-147.

Jackson, J. E. and J. W. Palmer. 1979. A simple model of light transmission and interception by discontinuous canopies. Annals of Botany 44:381-383.

Jones, M. B. and F. M. Muthuri. 1985. The canopy structure and microclimate of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) swamps. Journal of Ecology 73:481-492.

Jurik, T.W., H.Z. Zhang, and J.M. Pleasants. 1990. Ecophysiological consequences of non-random leaf orientation in the prairie compass plant, Silphium laciniatum. Oecologia 82:180-186.

Kaufmann, M. R. 1984. A canopy model (RM-CWU) for determining transpiration of subalpine forests. I. Model development. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14:218-226.

Kaufmann, M. R. 1984. A canopy model (RM-CWU) for determining transpiration of subalpine forests. II. Consumptive water use in two watersheds. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14:227-232.

Kimes, D. S., J. A. Smith, and J. K. Berry. 1979. Extension of the optical diffraction analysis technique for estimating forest canopy geometry. Australian Journal of Botany 27:575-588.

Knapp, R. H., Jr. and R. L. Williamson. 1984. Crown shadow area equations. Forest Science 30:284-290.

Kohyama, T., T. Hara, and Y. Tadaki. 1990. Patterns of trunk diameter, tree height and crown depth in crowded Abies stands. Annals of Botany 65:576-574.

Koike, F. 1985. Reconstruction of two-dimensional tree and forest canopy profiles using photographs. Journal of Applied Ecology 22:921-929.

Koike, F. 1986. Canopy dynamics estimated from shoot morphology in an evergreen broad-leaves forest. Oecologia 70:348-350.

Koike, F., H. Tabata, and S.B. Malla. 1990. Canopy structures and its effects on shoot growth and flowering in subalpine forests. Vegetatio 86:101-113.

Kollenkark, J. C., V. C. Vanderbilt, C. S. T. Daughtry, and M. E. Bauer. 1982. Influence of solar illumination angle on soybean canopy reflectance. Applied Optics 21:1179-1184.

Koppel, A. and T. Oja. 1984. Regime of diffuse solar radiation in an individual Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) crown. Photosynthetica 18:529-535.

Kustas, W. P., B. J. Choudhury, K. E. Kunkel, and L. W. Gay. 1989. Estimate of the aerodynamic roughness parameters over an imcomplete canopy cover of cotton. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 46:91-105.

Kuuluvainen, T. 1988. Crown architecture and stemwood production in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Tree Physiology 4:337-346.

Kuuluvainen, T. and T. Pukkala. 1987. Effect of crown and tree distribution on the spatial distribution of shade. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 40:215-231.

Lang, A. R. G. 1986. Estimation of leaf area index from transmission of direct sunlight in discontinuous canopies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 37:229-243.

Lang, A. R. G. 1986. Leaf area and average leaf angle from transmission of direct sunlight. Australian Journal of Botany 34:349-355.

Lasko, A. N. and R. C. Musselman. 1976. Effects of cloudiness on interior diffuse light in apple trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 101:642-644.

Ledent, J. F. 1978. Mechanisms determining leaf movement and leaf angle in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Annals of Botany 42:345-351.

Ledent, J. F. and D. N. Moss. 1977. Spatial orientation of wheat leaves. Crop Science 17:873-879.

Lei, T.T. and M.J. Lechowicz. 1990. Shade adaptation and shade tolerance in saplings of three Acer species from eastern North America. Oecologia 84:224-228.

Leverenz, J. W. and P. G. Jarvis. 1980. Photosynthesis in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.). IX. The relative contribution made by needles at various positions on the shoot. Journal of Applied Ecology 17:59-68.

Lieth, J. H. and J. F. Reynolds. 1984. A model of canopy irradiance in relation to changing leaf area in a phytotron-grown snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop. International Journal of Biometeorology 28:61-72.

Lillesaeter, O. 1982. Spectral reflectance of partly transmitting leaves: Laboratory measurements and mathematical modeling. Remote Sensing of Environment 12:247-254.

Linder, S. 1985. Potential and actual production in Australian forest stands. Pages 11-35 in J.J. Landsberg and W. Parsons, editors. Research for Forest Management. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.

Lowman, M. D. 1986. Light interception and its relation to structural differences in three Australian rainforest canopies. Australian Journal of Ecology 11:163-170.

Ludlow, M. M., T. H. Stobbs, R. Davis, and D. A. Charles-Edwards. 1982. Effect of sward structure of two tropical grasses with contrasting canopies on light distribution, net photosynthesis and size of bite harvested by grazing cattle. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 33:187-201.

Mack, A. R., E. J. Brach, and V. R. Rao. 1980. Changes in spectral characteristics of cereal crops with physiological development. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 60:411-417.

Mann, J. E., G. L. Curry, D. W. DeMichele, and D. N. Baker. 1980. Light penetration in a row-crop with random plant spacing. Agronomy Journal 72:131-142.

Mann, J. E., G. L. Curry, and P. J. H. Sharpe. 1979. Light interception by isolated plants. Agricultural Meteorology 20:205-214.

Marquis, R. J. and H. J. Braker H. E. Young. 1986. The influence of understory vegetation cover on germination and seedling establishment in a tropical lowland wet forest. Biotropica 18:273-278.

Matthews, R. B., R. A. Saffell, and G. S. Campbell. 1987. An instrument to measure light distribution in row crops. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 39:177-184.

McCaughey, J. H. 1978. Estimation of net radiation for a coniferous forest, and the effects of logging on net radiation and the reflection coefficient. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 8:450-455.

McMillen, G. G. and J. H. Clendon. 1979. Leaf angle an adaptive feature of sun and shade leaves. Botanical Gazette 140:437-442.

Medina, E., M. Sobrado, and R. Herrera. 1978. Significance of leaf orientation for leaf temperature in an Amazonian sclerophyll vegetation. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 15:131-140.

Miller, D.R., J.D. Lin, and Z.N. Lu. 1991. Some effects of surrounding forest canopy architecture on the wind field in small clearings. Forest Ecology and Management 45:79-

Miller, E. E. and J. M. Norman. 1971. A sunfleck theory for plant canopies. II. Penumbra effect: intensity distributions along sunfleck segments. Agronomy Journal 63:739-743.

Monteith, J. L. 1963. Light distribution and photosynthesis in field crops. Annals of Botany 29:17-37.

Morgan, D. C., D. A. Rook, I. J. Warrington, and H. L. Turnball. 1983. Growth and development of Pinus radiata D. Don: the effect of light quality. Plant, Cell and Environment 6:691-702.

Morgan, J. and M. G. R. Cannell. 1988. Support costs of different branch designs: effects of position, number, angle and deflection of laterals. Tree Physiology 4:303-313.

Morris, J. T. 1989. Modelling light distribution within the canopy of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora as a function of canopy biomass and solar angle. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 46:349-361.

Myneni, R. B., G. Asrar, E. T. Kanemasu, D. J. Lawlor, and I. Impens. 1986. Canopy architecture, irradiance distribution on leaf surfaces and consequent photosynthetic efficiencies in heterogeneous plant canopies. Part I. Theoretical considerations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 37:189-204.

Myneni, R. B., G. Asrar, E. T. Kanemasu, D. J. Lawlor, and I. Impens. 1986. Canopy architecture, irradiance distribution on leaf surfaces and consequent photosynthetic efficiencies in heterogeneous plant canopies. Part II. Results and discussion. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 37:205.

Neufeld, H. S. 1986. Ecophysiological implications of tree architecture for two cypress taxa, Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. and T. ascendens Brongn. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 113:118-124.

Neufeld, H. S., F. C. Meinzer, C. S. Wisdom, M. R. Sharifi, Rundel, P.W., M. S. Neufeld, Y. Goldring, and G. L. Cunningham. 1988. Canopy architecture of Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov., a desert shrub: foliage orientation and direct beam radiation interception. Oecologia 75:54-60.

Neumann, H. H., C. den Hartog, and R. H. Shaw. 1989. Leaf area measurements based on hemispheric photographs and leaf-litter collection in a deciduous forest during autumn leaf-fall. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 45:325-345.

Niklas, K. J. 1986. Evolution of plant shape: Design constraints. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1:67-72.

Nobel, P. S. 1981. Influences of photosynthetically active radiation on cladode orientation, stem tilting, and height of cacti. Ecology 62:982-990.

Nobel, P. S. 1982. Orientation, PAR interception, and nocturnal acidity increases for terminal cladodes of a widely cultivated cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica. American Journal of Botany 69:1462-1469.

Norman, J. M. and P. G. Jarvis. 1975. Photosynthesis in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.). V. Radiation penetration theory and a test case. Journal of Applied Ecology 12:839-878.

Oberbauer, S. F. and B. R. Strain. 1986. Effect of canopy position and irradiance on the leaf physiology and morphology of Pentaclethra macroloba (Mimosaceae). American Journal of Botany 73:409-416.

Oberbauer, S. F., D. A. Clark, D. B. Clark, and M. Quesada. 1989. Comparative analysis of photosynthetic light environments within the crowns of juvenile rain forest trees. Tree Physiology 5:13-23.

Ondok, J. P. 1984. Simulation of stand geometry in photosynthetic models based on hemispherical photographs. Photosynthetica 18:231-239.

O'Rourke, P. A. and W. H. Terjung. 1981. Modelling of influence of cloud amounts and types on leaf net photosynthetic rates inside a mature canopy. Photosynthetica 15:317-329.

Palmer, J. W. 1977. Diurnal light interception and a computer model of light interception by hedgerow apple orchards. Journal of Applied Ecology 14:601-414.

Palmer, J. W. and J. E. Jackson. 1977. Seasonal light interception and canopy development in hedgerow and bed system apple orchards. Journal of Applied Ecology 14:539-549.

Pereira, A. R., E. C. Machado, and Paes de Camargo. 1982. Solar radiation regime in three cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) canopies. Agricultural Meteorology 26:1-10.

Perry, S. G., A. B. Frasser, D. W. Thomson, and J. M. Norman. 1988. Indirect sensing of plant canopy structure with simple radiation measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 42:255-278.

Picolo, R. and J. Terradas. 1989. Aspects of crown reconstruction and leaf morphology in Quercus ilex L. and Quercus suber L. after defoliation by Lymantria dispar L. Oecologia Plantarum 10:69-78.

Pierce, L. L. and S. W. Running. 1988. Rapid estimation of coniferous forest leaf area index using a portable integrating radiometer. Ecology 69:1762-1767.

Poulson, T. L. and W. J. Platt. 1989. Gap light regimes influence canopy tree diversity. Ecology 70:553-555.

Prichard, J. M. and I. N. Forseth. 1988. Photosynthetic responses of two heliotropic legumes from contrasting habitats. Plant, Cell and Environment 11:591-601.

Rawson, H. M., R. L. Dunstone, M. J. Long, and J. E. Begg. 1984. Canopy development, light interception and seed production in sunflower as influenced by temperature and radiation. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 11:255-265.

Rees, D. J. 1986. The effects of population density, row spacing and intercropping on the interception and utilization of solar radiation by Sorghum bicolor and Vigna unguiculata in semi-arid conditions in Botswana. Journal of Applied Ecology 23:917-928.

Reginato, R. J., S. B. Idso, and R. D. Jackson. 1978. Estimating forage crop production: a technique adaptable to remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment 7:77-80.

Regnier, E. E. and E. W. Stoller. 1989. The effects of soybean (Glycine max) interference on the canopy architecture of common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science 37:187-195.

Remphrey, W. R. and G. R. Powell. 1987. Crown architecture of Larix laricina saplings: an analysis of higher order branching. Canadian Journal of Botany 65:268-279.

Ripley, B. D. 1978. Spectral analysis and the analysis of pattern in plant communities. Journal of Ecology 66:965-981.

Rodskjer, N. and L. Dahlstedt. 1977. Measurements of solar radiation in winter wheat. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 7:85-88.

Ross, J. 1975. Radiative transfer in plant communities. In J.L. Monteith, editor. Vegetation and atmosphere, volume 1. Principles. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.

Ross, J. 1981. The radiation regime and architecture of plant stands. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Russell, G., B. Marshall, and P. G. Jarvis. 1989. Plant canopies: Their growth, form and function. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, USA.

Salminen, R., P. Hari, E. Korpilahti, M. Kotiranta, and R. Sievanen. 1983. A measuring system for estimating the frequency distribution of irradiance within plant canopies. Journal of Applied Ecology 20:887-895.

Salminen, R., T. Nilson, P. Hari, L. Kaipianen, and J. Ross. 1983. A comparison of different methods for measuring the canopy light regime. Journal of Applied Ecology 20:897-904.

Schott, M. R. and R. D. Pieper. 1985. Influence of canopy characteristics of one-seed Juniper on understory grasses. Journal of Range Management 38:328-330.

Schwank, O., H. Blum, and J. Nosberger. 1986. The influence of irradiance distribution on the growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in differently managed canopies of permanent grassland. Annals of Botany 57:273-281.

Seastedt, T. R. 1985. Canopy interception of nitrogen in bulk precipitation by annually burned and unburned tallgrass prairie. Oecologia 66:88-92.

Shaver, G. R. 1978. Leaf angle and light absorptance of Arctostaphylos species (Ericaceae) along environmental gradients. Madrono 25:133-138.

Shaw, R. H. 1982. Aerodynamic roughness of a plant canopy: a numerical experiment. Agricultural Meteorology 26:51-65.

Sheehy, J. E. and L. C. Chapas. 1976. The measurement and distribution of irradiance in clear and overcast conditions in four temperate forage grass canopies. Journal of Applied Ecology 13:831-840.

Sheehy, J. E. and D. Cook. 1977. Irradiance distribution and carbon-dioxide flux in forage grass canopies. Annals of Botany 41:1017-1029.

Sheehy, J. E. and J. M. Peacock. 1975. Canopy photosynthesis and crop growth rate of eight temperate forage grasses. Journal of Experimental Botany 26:679-691.

Sheriff, D. W. and M. M. Ludlow. 1985. Diaheliotropic responses of leaves of Macroptillium atropurpureum cv. Sirato. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 12:151-171.

Shibayama, M. and C. L. Wiegand. 1985. View azimuth and zenith, and solar angle effects on wheat canopy reflectance. Remote Sensing of Environment 18:91-103.

Shukla, R. P. and P. S. Ramakrishnan. 1986. Architecture and growth strategies of tropical trees in relation to successional status. Journal of Ecology 74:33-46.

Silcock, R. G. and D. Wilson. 1982. The effect of leaf orientation on photosynthesis, transpiration and diffusive conductance of leaves of contrasting Festuca species. New Phytologist 90:27-36.

Silvertown, J. 1980. Leaf-canopy-induced seed dormancy in a grassland flora. New Phytologist 85:109-118.

Silvertown, J. and B. Smith. 1989. Mapping the microenvironment for seed germination in the field. Annals of Botany 63:163-167.

Smith, F. W. and J. N. Long. 1989. The influence of canopy architecture on stemwood production and growth efficiency of Pinus contorta var. latifolia. Journal of Applied Ecology 26:681-691.

Smith, J. A. and J. K. Berry. 1979. Optical diffraction analysis for estimating foliage angle distribution in grassland canopies. Australian Journal of Botany 27:123-133.

Smith, H., J.J.Casal, and G.M. Jackson. 1990. Reflection signals and the perception by phytochrome of the proximity of neighbouring vegetation. Plant, Cell and Environment 13:73-78.

Smith, J. A., K. J. Ranson, D. Nguyen, L. Balick, L. E. Link, L. Fritschen, and B. Hutchison. 1981. Thermal vegetation canopy model studies. Remote Sensing of Environment 11:311-326.

Spies, T. A. and J. F. Franklin. 1989. Gap characteristics and vegetation response in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. Ecology 70:543-545.

Sprugel, D. G. 1989. The relationship of evergreenness, crown architecture, and leaf size. American Naturalist 133:465-479.

Srivastava, G. C., P. S. Deshmukh, and D. P. S. Tomar. 1977. Significance of leaf orientation and bract in seed yield in sunflower. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 20:151-156.

Stoner, W. A., P. C. Miller, and P. M. Miller. 1978. A test of a model of irradiance within vegetation canopies at northern latitudes. Arctic and Alpine Research 10:761-767.

Stoutjesdijk, Ph. 1972. Spectral transmission curves of some types of leaf canopies with a note on seed germination. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 21:185-191.

Torssell, B. W. R. and H. G. McPherson. 1977. An improved model for simulating the penetration, propagation and absorption of radiation within plant canopies. Australian Journal of Ecology 2:245-256.

Trost, N. 1990. An approximate formula for the daily photoproduction of forest tree canopies. Ecological Modelling 49:297-309.

Tucker, C. J. 1980. A spectral method for determining the percentage of green herbage material in clipped samples. Remote Sensing of Environment 9:175-181.

Tucker, C. J. 1977. Spectral estimation of grass canopy variables. Remote Sensing of Environment 6:11-26.

Ustin, S. L., R. A. Woodward, and M. G. Barbour. 1984. Relationship between sunfleck dynamics and red fir seedling distribution. Ecology 65:1420-1428.

Wainwright, C. M. 1977. Sun-tracking and related leaf movements in a desert lupine (Lupinus arizonicus). American Journal of Botany 64:1032-1041.

Wall, G.W. and E.T. Kanemasu. 1990. Carbon dioxide exchange rates in wheat canopies. Part I. Influence of canopy geometry on trends in leaf area index, light interception and instantaneous exchange rates. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 49:81-102.

Wall, G. and E.T. Kanemasu. 1990. Carbon dioxide exchange rates in wheat canopies. Part II. Photosynthetic and phytomas production efficiencies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 49:103-122.

Wang, H. and D. D. Baldocchi. 1989. A numerical model for simulating the radiation regime within a deciduous forest canopy. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 46:313-337.

Warren Wilson, J. 1981. Analysis of light interception by single plants. Annals of Botany 48:501-505.

Warren Wilson, J. 1981. Analysis of growth, photosynthesis and light interception for single plants and stands. Annals of Botany 48:507-512.

Warren Wilson, J. 1963. Estimation of foliage denseness and foliage angle by inclined point quadrats. Australian Jornal of Botany 11:95-105.

Warren Wilson, J. 1960. Inclined point quadrats. New Phytologist 59:1-8.

Washitani, I. 1985. Field fate of Amaranthus patulus seeds subjected to leaf-canopy inhibition of germination. Oecologia 66:338-342.

Weiner, J.; G.M. Berntson, and S.C. Thomas, S.C. 1990. Competition and growth form in a woodland annual. Journal of Ecology 78:459-469.

Werk, K. S. and J. R. Ehleringer. 1986. Field water relations of a compass plant, Lactuca serriola L.: Short communication. Plant, Cell and Environment 9:681-683.

Werk, K. S. and J. Ehleringer. 1984. Non-random leaf orientation in Lactuca serriola L. Plant, Cell and Environment 7:81-87.

Whitham, T. G. and S. Mopper. 1985. Chronic herbivory: Impacts on architecture and sex expression of pinyon pine. Science 229:1089-1091.

Whitmore, T. C. 1989. Canopy gaps and the two major groups of forest trees. Ecology 70:536-538.

Williams, M. A. and R. B. Austin. 1977. Short note: an instrument for measuring the transmission of short wave radiation by crop canopies. Journal of Applied Ecology 14:987-992.

Woodhouse, R. M., J. G. Williams, and P. S. Nobel. 1980. Leaf orientation, radiation interception, and nocturnal acidity increases by the CAM plant Agave deserti (Agavaceae). American Journal of Botany 67:1179-1185.

Woodward, F. I. and J. E. Sheehy. 1979. Microclimate, photosynthesis and growth of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). II. Canopy structure and growth. Annals of Botany 44:709-719.

Wright, C. J. and P. D. Waister. 1984. Light interception and fruiting cane architecture in the red raspberry grown under annual and biennial management systems. Journal of Horticultural Science 59:395-402.

Young, D. R. 1985. Crown architecture, light interception, and stomatal conductance patterns for sympatric deciduous and evergreen species in a forest understory. Canadian Journal of Botany 63:2425-2429.

Young, E. and J. W. Hanover. 1977. Effects of quality, intensity, and duration of light breaks during a long night on dormancy in blue spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.) seedlings. Plant Physiology 60:271-273.