Aase, J. K. and F. H. Siddoway. 1979. Crown-depth soil temperatures and winter wheat survival. Soil Science Society of America Journal 43:1229-1233.
Alexandrov, V. Ya, A. G. Lomagin, and N. L. Feldman. 1970. The responsive increase in thermostability of plant cells. Protoplasma 69:417-458.
Alscher, R.G., and J.R. Cumming. 1990. Stress responses in plants: Adaptation and acclimation mechanisms. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, U.S.A.
Ashworth, E. N., P. Echlin, R. S. Pearce, and T. L. Hayes. 1988. Ice formation and tissue response in apple twigs. Plant, Cell and Environment 11:703-710.
Bagnall, D. J. and J. A. Wolfe. 1978. Chilling sensitivity in plants: Do the activation energies of growth processes show an abrupt change at a critical temperature? Journal of Experimental Botany 29:1231-1242.
Bannister, P. 1984. The seasonal course of frost resistance in some New Zealand pteridophytes. New Zealand Journal of Botany 22:557-564.
Bauer, H. and R. Kofler. 1987. Photosynthesis in frost-hardened and frost-stressed leaves of Hedera helix L. Plant, Cell and Environment 10:339-346.
Beck, E., M. Sensor, R. Scheibe, H.-M. Steiger, and P. Pongratz. 1982. Frost avoidance and freezing tolerance in Afroalpine `giant rosette' plants. Plant, Cell and Environment 5:215-222.
Bishop, D. G. 1986. Chilling sensitivity in higher plants: The role of phosphatidylglycerol: Opinion. Plant, Cell and Environment 9:613-616.
Briantais, J.M., J.M. Ducruet, M. Hodges, and G.-H. Krause. 1992. The effects of low temperature acclimation and photoinhibitory treatments on photosystem II studied by thermoluminescence and fluorescence decay kinetics. Photosynthesis Research 31:1-
Bruggemann, W., T.A.W. Van der Kooij, and P.R. Van Hasselt. 1992. Long-term chilling of young tomato plants under low light and subsequent recovery. 1. Growth, development and photosynthesis. Planta 186:172-
Bruggemann, W., T.A.W. Van der Kooij, and P.R. Van Hasselt. 1992. Long-term chilling of young tomato plants under low light and subsequent recovery. 2. Chlorophyll fluorescence, carbon metabolism and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase. Planta 186:179-
Cannel, G. R., M. B. Murray, and L. J. Sheppard. 1985. Frost avoidance by selection for late budburst in Picea sitchensis . Journal of Applied Ecology 22:931-941.
Chapman, E., L. C. Wright, and J. K. Raison. 1979. Seasonal changes in the structure and function of mitochondrial membranes of artichoke tubers. Plant Physiology 63:363-366.
Charest, C., and C.T. Phan. 1990. Cold acclimation of wheat ( Triticum aestivum): Properties of enzymes involved in proline metabolism. Physiologia Plantarum 80:159-168.
Clements, R. J. and M. M. Ludlow. 1977. Frost avoidance and frost resistance in Centrosema virginianum. Journal of Applied Ecology 14:551-566.
Cornic, G. and G. Louason. 1980. The effects of O2 on net photosynthesis at low temperature (5°C). Plant, Cell and Environment 3:149-157.
Daughtry, C. S. T. and L. L. Biehl. 1985. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves. Remote Sensing of Environment 17:281-290.
Dreyer, E., G. Aussenac, M. Bonnet-Masimbert, P. Dizengremel, J.M. Favre, J.P. Garrec, F. Le Tacon, and F. Martin, editors. 1990. Forest Tree Physiology. Elsevier, Paris, France. Cold stress, forests. Proceedings of the International Symposium, 25-30 September, 1988. 875s pp. Annales des sciences forestiéres (ANSFADS) 46(supplement) 1s-875s.
Duncan, D.R., J.M. Widholm. 1991. Proline is not the primary determinent of chilling tolerance induced by manitol or abscisic acid in regenerable maize callus cultures. Plant Physiology 95:1284-
Earnshaw, M.J., K.A. Carver, T.C. Gunn, K. Kerenga, V. Harvey, H. Griffiths, and M.S.J. Broadmeadow. 1990. Photosynthetic pathway, chilling tolerance and cell sap osmotic potential values of grasses along an altitudinal gradient in Papua New Guinea. Oecologia 84:280-288.
Fennell, A., P.H. Li, and A.H. Markhart, III. 1990. Influence of air and soil temperature on water relations and freezing tolerance of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Physiologia Plantarum 78:51-56.
Fey, R. L., M. Workman, H. Marcellos, and M. J. Burke. 1979. Electron spin resonance of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl(TEMPO)-labeled plant leaves. Plant Physiology 63:1220-1222.
Gillies, S.L., and Vidaver. 1990. Resistance to photodamage in evergreen conifers. Physiologia Plantarum 80:148-153.
Goldstein, G., F. Rada, and A. Azocar. 1985. Cold hardiness and supercooling along in altitudinal gradient in Andean giant rosette species. Oecologia 68:147-152.
Grace, J., S. J. Allen, and C. Wilson. 1989. Climate and the meristem temperatures of plant communities near the tree-line. Oecologia 79:198-204.
Grier C.C. 1988. Foliage loss due to snow, wind, and winter drying damage: its effects on leaf biomass of some western conifer forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18:1097-1102.
Guy, C.L. 1990. Cold acclimation and freezing stress tolerance: role of protein metabolism. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 41:187-223.
Hallgren, J.-E., E. Sundbom, and M. Strand. 1982. Photosynthetic responses to low temperature in Betula pubescens and Betula tortuosa. Physiologia Plantarum 54:275-282.
Hamer, P. J. 1980. A model to evaluate evaporative cooling of apple buds as a frost protection technique. Journal of Horticultural Science 55:157-163.
Hänninen, H. 1990. Modelling bud dormancy release in trees from cool and temperate regions. Acta Forestalia Fennica 213:1-47.
Hänninen, H. 1990. Modeling dormancy release in trees from cool and temperate regions. Pages 159-165 in R.K. Dixon, R.S. Meldahl, G.A. Ruark, and W.G. Warren, editors. Process modeling of forest growth responses to environmental stress. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.
Hänninen, H., R. Häkkinen, P. Hari, and V. Koski. 1990. Timing of growth cessation in relation to climatic adaptation of northern woody plants. Tree Physiology 6:29-39.
Hinckley, T. M., G. H. Goldstein, F. Meinzer, and R. O. Teskey. 1985. Environmental constraints at arctic, temperate-maritime and tropical treelines. Pages 21-30 in H. Turner and W. Tranquillini, editors. Establishment and tending of subalpine forest: Research and management. Proceedings of the Third IUFRO Workshop, Eidgenossiche fur das Anstalt forstliche Versuchswesen Bericht 270.
Kappen, L. 1979. Tolerance of halophytes against freezing and salt stress and its possible biochemical causes. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 92:55-71.
Katterman, F., editor. 1990. Environmental injury to plants. Academic Press, San Diego, California, U.S.A.
Kedrowski, R. A. 1980. Changes in cold hardiness of introduced and native interior Alaskan evergreens in relation to water and lipid content during spring dehardening. Physiologia Plantarum 48:438-442.
Klebesadel, L. J. 1985. Hardening behavior, winter survival, and forage productivity of Festuca species and cultivars in subarctic Alaska. Crop Science 25:441-447.
Kozlowski, T. T. and S. G. Pallardy. 1979. Effects of low temperature on leaf diffusion resistance of Ulmus americana and Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings. Canadian Journal of Botany 57:2466-2470.
Leuning, R. and K. W. Cremer. 1988. Leaf temperatures during radiation frost. I. Observations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 42:121-133.
Lin, C.T., W.W. Guo, and E. Everson, M.F. Thomashow. 1990. Cold acclimation in Arabidopsis and wheat - A response associated with expresssion of related genes encoding 'boiling-stable' polypeptides. Plant Physiology 94:1078-1083.
Lindstrom, O.M. 1992. Transplant date influences cold hardiness of Leyland cypress following transplanting into the field. HortScience 27:217-
Malone, S.R., E.N. Ashworth. 1991. Freezing stress response in woody tissues observed using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques. Plant Physiology 95:871-881.
Margolis, H.A., L.P. Vézina. 1990. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment and the development of frost hardiness on containerized black spruce seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:1392-1398.
Melcarek, P. K. and G. N. Brown. 1977. The effects of chilling stress on the chlorophyll fluorescence of leaves. Plant and Cell Physiology 18:1099-1107.
Minorsky, P. V. 1989. Temperature sensing by plants: a review and hypothesis. Plant, Cell and Environment 12:119-135.
Nobel, P.S. 1990. Low-temperature tolerance and CO2 uptake for platyopuntias - a laboratory assessment. Journal of Arid Environments 18:313-324.
Nobel, P. S. 1982. Low-temperature tolerance and cold hardening of cacti. Ecology 63:1650-1656.
Nobel, P. S. 1981. Influence of freezing temperatures on a cactus, Coryphantha vivipara. Oecologia 48:194-198.
Nobel, P. S. 1980. Morphological, nurse plants, and minimum apical temperatures for young Carnegiea gigantea. Botanical Gazette 141:188-191.
Nowak, R. S. and M. M. Caldwell. 1984. Photosynthetic activity and survival of foliage during winter for two bunchgrass species in a cold-winter steppe environment. Photosynthetica 18:192-200.
Olien, C. R. 1973. Thermodynamic components of freezing stress. Journal of Thermodynamic Biology 39:201-210.
Öquist, G. and B. Martin. 1980. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport and formation of inactive chlorophyll in winter stressed Pinus silvestris. Physiologia Plantarum 48:33-38.
Öquist, G., L. Brunes, J.-E. Hallgren, K. Gezelius, M. Hallen, and G. Malmberg. 1980. Effects of artificial frost hardening and winter stress on net photosynthesis, photosynthetic electron transport and RuBP carboxylase activity in seedlings of Pinus silvestris. Physiologia Plantarum 48:526-531.
Palta, J.P. 1990. Stress interactions at the cellular and membrane levels. HortScience 25:1377-1381.
Palta, J. P. and P. H. Li. 1979. Frost-hardiness in relation to leaf anatomy and natural distribution of several Solanum species. Crop Science 19:665-671.
Palta, J. P. and P. H. Li. 1980. Alterations in membrane transport by freezing injury in herbaceous plants: evidence against rupture theory. Physiologia Plantarum 50:169-175.
Palta, J. P., J. Levitt, E. J. Stadelmann, and M. J. Burke. 1977. Dehydration of onion cells: a comparison of freezing vs. desiccation and living vs. dead cells. Physiologia Plantarum 41:273-279.
Palta, J. P., J. Levitt, and E. J. Stadelmann. 1977. Freezing injury in onion bulb cells. II. Post-thawing injury or recovery. Plant Physiology 60:398-401.
Palta, J. P., J. Levitt, and E. J. Stadelmann. 1977. Freezing injury in onion bulb cells. I. Evaluation on the conductivity method and analysis of ion and sugar efflux from injured cells. Plant Physiology 60:393-397.
Parsons, L. R. and P. H. Li. 1979. Changes in frost hardiness of stem cortical tissues of Cornus stoloifera Michx. after recovery from water stress. Plant Physiology 64:351-353.
Patterson, B. D. and D. Graham. 1977. Effect of chilling temperatures on the protoplasmic streaming of plants from different climates. Journal of Experimental Botany 28:736-743.
Perez, F. L. 1987. Needle-ice activity and the distribution of stem-rosette species in a Venezuelan Paramo. Arctic and Alpine Research 19:135-153.
Perez, F. L. 1987. Soil moisture and the upper altitudinal limit of giant paramo rosettes. Journal of Biogeography 14:173-186.
Perez, F. L. 1989. Some effects of giant Andean stem-rosettes on ground microclimate, and their ecological significance. International Journal of Biometeorology 131-135.
Pierquet, P., C. Stushnoff, and M. J. Burke. 1977. Low temperature exotherms in stem and bud tissues of Vitis riparia Michx. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 102:54-55.
Pollock, C. J., E. J. Lloyd, H. Thomas, and J. L. Stoddart. 1984. Changes in photosynthetic capacity during prolonged growth of Lolium temulentum at low temperature. Photosynthetica 18:478-481.
Pollock, K. M., D. H. Greer, and B. T. Bulloch. 1986. Frost tolerance of Acacia seedlings. Australian Forest Research 16:337-346.
Potvin, C. 1987. Differences in photosynthetic characteristics among northern and southern C4 plants. Physiologia Plantarum 69:659-664.
Potvin, C. 1988. Differences between the effects of partial and whole plant chilling on carbon translocation of a C4 grass. Plant, Cell and Environment 11:51-54.
Pukacki, P. and S. Pukacka. 1987. Freezing stress and membrane injury in Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues. Physiologia Plantarum 69:156-160.
Quamme, H. A. 1978. Mechanism of supercooling in overwintering peach flower buds. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 10:57-61.
Raison, J. K. and J. M. Lyons. 1986. Chilling injury: A plea for uniform terminology: Opinion. Plant, Cell and Environment 9:685-686.
Raymond, C. A., C. E. Harwood, and J. V. Owen. 1986. A conductivity method for screening populations of eucalypts for frost damage and frost tolerance. Australian Journal of Botany 34:377-393.
Rehfeldt, G. E. 1989. Ecological adaptation in Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca): a synthesis. Forest Ecology and Management 28:203-215.
Repo, T., A. Makela, and H. Hänninen. 1990. Modelling frost resistence of trees. Silva Carelica 15:61-74.
Repo, T., T. Tuovinen, and T. Savolainen. 1990. Estimation of an electrical model of plant tissue using the impedance locus. Silva Carelica 15:51-59.
Rutten, D. and K. A. Santarius. 1988. Cold acclimation of Ilex aquifolium under natural conditions with special regard to the photosynthetic apparatus. Physiologia Plantarum 72:807-815.
Sakai, A. 1979. Freezing avoidance mechanism of primordial shoots of conifer buds. Plant & Cell Physiology 20:1381-1390.
Sakai, A. and W. Larcher. 1987. Frost survival of plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany.
Schuch, U. K., M. L. Duryea, and L. H. Fuchigami. 1989. Frost hardiness as acquired by Douglas-fir seedlings in three Pacific Northwest nurseries. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:192-197.
Schuch, U. K., M. L. Duryea, and L. H. Fuchigami. 1989. Dehardening and budburst of Douglas-fir seedlings raised in three Pacific Northwest nurseries. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:198-203.
Seeley, S. 1990. Hormal transduction of environmental stresses. HortScience 25:1369-1375.
Senden, J. W., A. J. Schenkeveld, and H. J. Verkaar. 1986. The combined effect of temperature and red:far red ratio on the germination of some short-lived chalk grassland species Oecologia Plantarum 7:251-259.
Senser, M. and E. Beck. 1977. On the mechanisms of frost injury and frost hardening of spruce chloroplasts. Planta 137:195-201.
Siminovitch, D. 1979. Protoplasts surviving freezing to -196°C and osmotic dehydration in 5 molar salt solutions prepared from the bark of winter bark locust trees. Plant Physiology 63:722-725.
Simpson, D.G. 1990. Frost hardiness, root growth capacity, and field performance relationships in interior spruce, lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western hemlock seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:566-572.
Somersalo, S., and G.H. Krause. 1990. Photoinhibition at chilling temperatures and effects of freezing stress on cold acclimated spinach leaves in the field - A fluorescence study. Physiologia Plantarum 79:617-622.
Squeo, F.A., F. Rada, A. Azocar, and G. Goldstein. 1991. Freezing tolerance and avoidance in high tropical Andean plants: Is it equally represented in species with different plant height. Oecologia 86: 378-
Stamp, P. 1987. Seedling development of maize genotypes at constant and at fluctuating temperatures. Journal Agronomy and Crop Science 158:289-293.
Stamp, P. 1987. Seedling development of adapted and exotic maize genotypes at severe chilling stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 38:1336-1342.
Steffen, K. L. and J. P. Palta. 1986. Effect of light on photosynthetic capacity during cold acclimation in a cold-sensitive and a cold-tolerant potato species. Physiologia Plantarum 66:353-359.
Stout, D. G. 1988. Effect of cold acclimation on bulk tissue electrical impedance. I. Measurements with birdsfoot trefoil at subfreezing temperatures. Plant Physiology 86:275-282.
Stout, D. G. 1988. Effect of cold acclimation on bulk tissue electrical impedance. II. Measurements with alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil at nonfreezing temperatures. Plant Physiology 86:283-287.
Stout, D. G., P. L. Steponkus, and R. M. Cotts. 1978. Plasmalemma alteration during cold acclimation of Hedera helix bark. Canadian Journal of Botany 56:196-205.
Straub, P. F. and J. L. Gallagher. 1989. Cold tolerance in Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth robust form, tissue cultures and whole plants. Plant, Cell and Environment 12:503-509.
Teets, T. M., R. L. Hummel, and C. L. Guy. 1989. Cold-acclimation of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and Hibiscus syriacus L. in natural and controlled environments. Plant, Cell and Environment 12:495-502.
Thomas, H. and J. L. Stoddart. 1984. Kinetics of leaf growth in Lolium temulentum at optional and chilling temperatures. Annals of Botany 53:341-347.
Tischner, R., K.-P. Heise, R. Nelle, and H. Lorenzen. 1978. Changes in pigment content, lipid pattern and ultrastructure of synchronous Chlorella after heat and cold shocks. Planta 139:29-33.
Valentini, R., G.S. Mugnozza, E. Giordano, and E. Kuzminsky. 1990. Influence of cold hardening on water relations of three Eucalyptus species. Tree Physiology 6:1-10.
Watson, B. T. 1980. The effect of cooling in the rate of phloem translocation in the stems of two gymnosperms, Picea sitchensis and Abies procera. Annals of Botany 45:219-223.
Wolfe, D.W. 1991. Low temperature effects on early vegetative growth, leaf gas exchange and water potential of chilling sensitive and chilling tolerant crop species. Annals of Botany 67:205-212.
Wolfe, J. 1978. Chilling injury in plants - the role of membrane lipid fluidity. Plant, Cell and Environment 1:241-247.
Yakir, D., J. Rudich, and B.-A. Bravdo. 1986. Adaptation to chilling: photosynthetic characteristics of the cultivated tomato and a high altitude wild species. Plant, Cell and Environment 9:477-484.
Yelenosky, G. 1979. Accumulation of free proline in citrus leaves during cold hardening of young trees in controlled temperature regimes. Plant Physiology 64:425-427.
Ziegler, P. and O. Kandler. 1980. Tonoplast stability as a critical factor in frost injury and hardening of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie 99:393-410.