AENEID STUDY GUIDE (courtesy of Ann Marie Husch)


Key characters from Aeneid - Books I, IV
Acestes - king of Sicily
Achates - friend of Aeneas
Aeneas - Trojan descended from Dardanus; destined to found a city from which will come the Roman state
Anchises - Aeneas' father, his "past", whom he carries out of Troy on his shoulders
Anna - close friend ("sister") of Dido
Ascanius (Iulus) - son of Aeneas; founder of Alba Longa, Aeneas' "future"

Dido (Elissa) - Tyrian founder and queen of Carthage; widow of Sychaeus

Iarbis - king of the Ethiopians; one of Dido's suitors, angered by relationship of Dido and Aeneas
King Teucer - first king of Troy
Pygmalion - king of Tyre who killed Sychaeus, Dido's husband; brother of Dido

Gods and goddesses (Roman and Greek names) - Books I - IV
Apollo (Phoebus) - connected with founding of cities, medicine, music
Aurora - dawn goddess
Ceres Giver of Laws - goddess who guarantees growth of crops; connected with founding of cities
Diana (Artemis) - virgin goddess of the hunt; goddess of sorcery and the moon
Iris - divine messenger; identified with rainbow
Juno (Hera) - wife of Jupiter; enemy of Trojans, cares for Carthage
Jupiter (Jove, Zeus) - ruler of the gods
Lyaeus (Bacchus, Dionysus) - wine god; connected with founding of cities
Mars (Ares) - the war god
Mercury (Hermes) - the messenger god; sent to Aeneas to keep him moving towards his destiny
Minerva ( Pallas Athena, Pallas Tritonia)
Neptune (Poseidon) - god of the sea; brother of Jupiter
Nereus - sea god; father of the Nereids
Proserpina - queen of the underworld
Venus (Cytherea, Aphrodite) - mother of Aeneas

Other names & terms - Books I, IV
Avernus - lake in southern Italy; legendary entrance to the lower world

Atlas - Titan; father of Electra, punished by Jupiter to hold the heavens on his shoulders
Dis - Hades
Eumenides - the Furies
Erebus - The lower depths of Hades
In medias res - beginning in the middle of action
Judgment of Paris - Paris was asked to decide which goddess was most beautiful: Venus, Juno or Minerva; Paris awarded the prize to Venus and he received the promise of Helen's love
Pax Romana - period of Roman peace from 96BC -235AD
Penate - Roman household gods
Styx (Stygian) - river in underworld

Characters from fall of Troy, Trojan War (Book II)
Achilles (Pelides, Larisaean Achilles)
Ajax - Greek, raped Cassandra (not Ajax from Iliad)
Andromache - wife of Hector
Astyanax - son of Hector
Atridae - Menelaus & Agamemnon
Calchas - Greek seer
Cassandra - daughter of Priam; cursed by Apollo to always tell the truth but not be believed - tried to warn Trojans about Horse
Deiphobus - son of Priam; married to Helen after Paris died, killed through Helen's treachery
Diomedes - Greek; with Ulysses stole Palladium
Epeos - Greek; designer of Trojan Horse
Hector - son of Priam killed by Achilles; appears to Aeneas in dream 

Hecuba - wife of Priam
Helen (daughter of Tyndareus, woman of Laconia) - ran off with Paris, beginning Trojan War
Iphigenia - virgin daughter of Agamemnon, sacrificed at beginning of Trojan War
Laocoon - Trojan; killed by twin snakes ("beware of Greeks bearing gifts")
Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) - son of Achilles; murdered Priam
Paris - son of Priam; relationship w/ Helen cause of Trojan War
Phoenix - Greek soldier
Polites - son of Priam; killed by Neoptolemus in front of Priam
Priam - king of Troy
Sinon - Greek; false story led Trojans to bring Horse into Troy
Ulysses (Odysseus in Greek, the Ithacan) - cunning, crafty; ruthless in Aeneid

Other terms, Book II
Palladium - statue from shrine of Pallas Athena (Minerva), stolen by Diomedes and Ulysses
Scaean Gates - one of the entrances to Troy
Twin snakes - creatures who killed Laocoon; their presence was taken as a symbol by the Trojans to bring the Trojan Horse into Troy


Quotes - Books I-IV
Book I
I sing of warfare and a man at war (1).
For years they wandered as their destiny drove them on from one sea to the next: so hard and huge a task it was to found the Roman people (46-49).
Born of an immortal mother though you are, what adverse destiny dogs you through these many kinds of danger? (254-256; Dido to Aeneas)
Book II
On the distant shore the vast trunk headless lies without a name (703-704, Priam, symbolic of General Pompey).
Then come, dear father. Arms around my neck: I'll take you on my shoulders, no great weight. Whatever happens, both will face one danger, find one safety (887-890, Aeneas to Achises).
Then little Iulus put his hand in mine and came with shorter steps beside his father (905-906, Aeneas).
Nothing here has come to pass except as heaven willed. You may not take Creusa with you now; it was not so ordained, nor does the lord of high Olympus give you leave. For you long exile waits, and long sea miles to plough. You shall make landfall on Hesperia where Lydian Tiber flows, with gentle pace, between rich farmlands, and the years will bear glad peace, a kingdom, and a queen for you (970-979, Creusa to Aeneas)

Book IV
He was to be the ruler of Italy, potential empire, armorer of war; to father men from Teucer's noble blood and bring the whole world under law's dominion (297-300; Jupiter to Mercury).
If future history's glories do not affect you, if you will not strive for your own honor, think of Ascanius, think of the expectations of your heir, Iulus, to whom the Italian realm, the land of Rome, are due (353-358, Mercury to Aeneas).
Then, O my Tyrians, besiege with hate his progeny and all his race to come: make this your offering to my dust. No love, no pact must be between our peoples; no, but rise up from my bones, avenging spirit!  Harry with fire and sword the Dardanian countrymen now, or hereafter, at whatever time the strength will be afforded. Coast with coast in conflict, I implore,and sea with sea, and arms with arms: may they contend in war, themselves and all the children of their children!
(834-844; Dido, foreshadowing Punic Wars).

Book VI
Acheron - a river of the underworld
Cerebus - three-headed dog guarding entrance to hell
Charon - ferryman across the river Styx
Cocytus - one of the rivers of the underworld; the river of wailing
Dis - the god of the underworld
Elysium - paradise of the souls of the blessed
Golden Bough - required as a tribute to Proserpina in order that Aeneas could cross over the Styx into the underworld, into Elysium and back

Fields of Mourning - place in the underworld where Aeneas meets Dido
Orcus - the underworld
Sibyl of Cumae - aged prophetess priestess and who was Aeneas' guide to the underworld
Styx - marked the boundary between the living and the dead; those not properly buried were not allowed to cross
Minos - judge of the dead

Aeneas' journey through the underworld
1.Aeneas gets the Golden Bough
2.Sibyl leads him into cave at Lake Avernus
3.Ante-chamber - phantom monsters
4.Those who have not been given proper burial
5.River Styx and Charon
6.Cerebus - drugged by Sibyl
7.Infants, suicides
8.Fields of Mourning - Dido
9.Those who died in battle - Aeneas sees both Trojans and Greeks
10.Fork in road:  Right hand - Tartarus, where wicked suffer eternal torment; Left hand - Elysium, Blessed Groves, the paradise of the souls of the blessed
11.Meeting with Anchises -Souls waiting to return to earth; among them, Aeneas' descendants
-Cleansing of souls
-Anchises shows Aeneas descendents who will found and rule Alba Longa, Rome
-Augustus Caesar
12.Two gates of Sleep; Aeneas returns to friends

Others will cast more tenderly in bronze their breathing figures, I can well believe, and bring more lifelike portraits out of marble; argue more eloquently, use the pointer to trace the paths of heaven accurately and accurately foretell the rising stars. Roman, remember by your strength to rule earth's peoples -- for your arts are to be these: to pacify, to impose the rule of law, to spare the conquered, battle down the proud (Anchises, Book VI, 747-756)