PRACTICE EXAM FOR SECTION 8
Philosophy 103:08 Second Exam Name______________________
Matching. Place the letter of the correct definition of each of the numbered terms in the blanks on the right.
1. xin A. parts of the self 1. __
2. ren B. blessedness 2.__
3. eudaimonia C. propriety 3.__
4. phronesis D. wisdom 4.__
5. sophia E. heart-mind 5.__
6. dharma F. virtue 6.__
7. nirvana G. purpose 7.__
8. skandhas H. human being 8.__
9. de I. well being 9.__
10. makarios J. reciprocity 10.__
11. telos K. humaneness 11.__
12. li L. craving 12.__
13. ren* M. end of craving 13.__
14. tanha N. moral law 14.__
15. shu O. practical reason 15.__
Multiple Choice. Use AE@ for Anone of these@ answers are correct. Use AD@ for A, B, and C are correct.
3. Which of the following thinker is not a moral rationalist:
A. Plato; B. Aquinas; C. Plato; D. Hume; E. none of these. 3.__
4. Which of the following are not above Plato=s Adivided line@?
A. geometric forms; B. the form of the Good; C. perfect virtues; D. numbers; E. none of these. 4.__
5. AAll divorced people are unmarried@ is what type of proposition?
A. analytic proposition; B. moral sentiment; C. declaration; D. hypothetical imperative; E. None of these. 5.__
6. Lessing=s statement Athe passions make us all equal@ supports which position?
A. moral rationalism; B. ethical objectivism; C. moral voluntarism; D. moral autonomy; E. None of these. 6.__
7. Which term best describes Confucius= view of the self?
A. dichotomy; B. dualism; C. autonomy; D. materialism; E. None of these. 7.__
8. Which thinker rejects the fusion of facts and values?
A. Buddha; B. Aristotle; C. Confucius; D. Aquinas; E. None of these. 8.__
9. Which of the following thinkers is not a consequentialist?
A. Aquinas; B. Buddha; C. Hume; D. None of these. 9.__
12. According to Aristotle, a man is a
A. sensitive soul; B. nutritive soul; C. rational soul; D. All of these; E. None of these. 12.__
13. Aquinas rejected which of the arguments for the existence of God?
A. ontological*; B. cosmological**; C. teleological; D. moral argument; E. None of these. 13.__
14. Which of the following is not an area of philosophy?
A. ethics; B. theory of reality; C. theory of value; D. theory of knowledge; E. None of these. 14.__
15. The following are not substances:
A. Brahman-Atman; B. God; C. Greek atoms; D. Plato=s soul; E. None of these. 15.__
16. Which of the following thinker is a rationalist in theory of knowledge?
A. Buddha; B. Hume; C. Confucius; D. Mencius; E. None of these. 16.__
17. Which of the arguments for God did Hume accept?
A. ontological*; B. cosmological**; C. first cause argument; D. design argument; E. None of these. 17.__
18. AAll egocentric life is frustrated@ is
A. a categorical imperative; B. an analytic proposition; C. a hypothetical imperative; D. all; E. none. 18.__
19. Which of the following is not a skandha?
A. awareness; B. body; C. feelings; D. dispositions; E. None of these. 19.__
20. What is not part of Aquinas= natural theology?
A. Creation out of nothing; B. immortality of the soul; C. basic moral laws; D. existence of God. 20.__
True or False. Please a AT@ or an AF@ in the numbered blanks on the right.
1. An argument with a true conclusion is a sound argument 1.__
2. A valid argument is a sound argument 2.__
3. AThe Buddha told me so@ is a reductio ad absurdum. 3.__
4. Confucius used analogical arguments 4.__
5. AParallel lines never meet@ is an analytic proposition. 5.__
6. AA compass always points to magnetic north@ is a synthetic proposition. 6.__
7. Aquinas and Plato are all ethical objectivists. 7.__
8. Confucius, the Buddha, and Hume are moral rationalists. 8.__
9. Plato, Aquinas, and the Buddha separate fact from value. 9.__
10. Plato, Aristotle, the Buddha, Confucius have an organic view of the world. 10.__
11. Aquinas is a moral consequentialist. 11.__
12. A sound argument is a valid argument. 12.__
13. A valid argument can have a false conclusion. 13.__
*The ontological argument is as follows: I have an idea of a perfect being; a perfect being can lack no perfection of being; existence is a perfection of being; therefore, a perfect being (=God) must exist.
**Aquinas= first three Aways@ are sometimes called Acosmological@ arguments for God.
Study Questions for the Mid-Term Exam
1. Think of the story of the Buddha elephant and relate it to Dhammapada 12:10. In the ethics of the New Testament do you see a similar tension between forgiving the other seventy times seven, turning the other cheek, and loving your enemy and "Do unto others as you would have them do to yourself"? Here is Kalupahana's translation of 12:10: "One should not neglect oneís own welfare through excessive altruism. Having understood oneís own welfare, one should be devoted to true welfare." Ponder this passage from the Buddha himself: "If you thoroughly search in ten directions with your mind, nowhere will you find anything more dear to you than yourself. In the same way, the self is extremely dear to others. Therefore, one who loves himself should cause no harm to another" (Samyutta Nikaya).
2. Aristotle states that a moral virtue is always "relative to us." What does he mean by this and how does Aristotle compare with Confucius and the Buddha on this point? How does this ancient "relativism" differ from modern moral relativism?
3. Among Confucius, the Buddha, and Aristotle who is an ethical objectivist and who is an ethical subjectivist? (Note: they may be all of the same type.) In this connection where you think moral rules come from for these three philosophers? Please add Mencius on this last issue.
4. Explain the three areas of philosophy and how they interact for each of the philosophers we have studied. Specifically, how to the first two areas relate to theory of value. Note: You will be asked to write on one and Plato is included in these philosophers. Confucius is excluded.
5. Of the various higher goods which Aristotle considers--pleasure, reason, virtue, and happiness--he finally concludes that happiness (eudaimonia) must be the highest good. What are Aristotle's criteria for the highest good and how does he use them to eliminate eudaimonia's competition? You must test each candidate against the four criteria. Do you think Aristotle is correct in his argument?
6. Confucius believes that one should not return hatred for hatred, but he disagrees with his Daoist friends who insist that we should return virtue for hatred. What is his answer and how do Christians and Buddhists respond? Please include the passage from the Dhammapada (12:166) in your answer. Who do you think is right on this issue?
7. Please explain Mencius counter arguments to Gaozi at 6a4. Do you think there is any possible response on Gaozis part?
8. Defining honor as something bestowed by others for a personís good deeds makes it an especially poor contender for the highest good. If we define honor as the virtue of abiding by our own principles whatever the cost (a la William Wallace), would this change your mind about Aristotleís position? Again you must test this idea of honor against the four criteria.
9. Discuss the passages in the Dhammapada that express the Buddhist belief that anger and hate are disorders of the soul. A good Buddhist should never get angry and should never hate. The logic of Buddhist psychology of hate is that if one hates then one becomes hatred itself and spreads hatred in her surroundings. What do you think of this as an ethical policy? Read these articles on anger (anger2) and see what you think.
10. What do you think about extending the Golden Rule to animals? (Dhammapada chap. 10) Recall that the Golden Rule is "Do unto others as they would do to you." The Buddhist argument is that they seek "happiness" just like we do. Although they may not be persons in the traditional sense, animal rights philosophers claim that animals have "interests" in their lives that must be respected. Furthermore, even though many animals do not follow the Golden Rule, does not our superior moral awareness require that we follow it with regard to them?