The following excerpt was taken from the1992 edition of the Transportation Planning Handbook, published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers (p. 199).
To assure optimum use, general-purpose parking facilities must be properly located. Whether free or commercial, the public purpose of a parking lot or garage is to enhance local economic values, and/or reduce street congestion. Factors that determine appropriate locations for individual facilities include amount and type of parking shortages, type of nearby generators, facility-user considerations (whether long-term or short-term), development costs, and street system elements, such as capacity, directional flows, and turn restrictions. The total parking system of an area should be considered as it relates to balancing of supply to needs and the street access network.
Most work on parking facility location involves CBD areas. However, other needs exist in outlying business areas, in older apartment areas with severe parking shortages, and at universities.