. . . There are two general types of park and ride lots: (1) a change from the private vehicle to some form of public transportation such as bus, rapid transit, or suburban rail and (2) carpooling.
The interfaces are the following:
For most locations, there are two elements to the park-and-ride function: (1) long-term, all day commuter parking, which represents the major consideration, and (2) short-term spaces that are desirable to encourage midday shopper, sporting event, or other personal trip usage of the transit facility during off peak periods. These spaces would typically be used from 4 to 6 hours. Efficiency of land use is enhanced by combining the P/D operation with the short-term space needs. Thus, a very short time limit during the A.M. and P.M. peak transit activity, such as 5 to 10 minutes, is imposed on a limited number of spaces adjacent to the station. These spaces are then available for intermediate-term parking during the balance of the day. The major P/D problem involves the pickup element in the evening, when motorists arrive and temporarily park while awaiting arrival of the commuter train or express bus. . . .Additional planning elements of the transit terminal include loading/unloading spaces for buses and waiting areas for taxis.
The important parking characteristics of a transit station include the number of P/D spaces needed versus the number of long-term spaces. Reliable estimators for the number of P/D spaces, on a per-originating-daily-passenger basis, are needed but have not been identified. Three studies in the Chicago area found a range of 0.05 to 0.07 (average 0.06) spaces per originating passenger; however, additional research on this parking demand is needed in other cities. . . .
The parking space demand per originating passenger at various types of terminals is given in Table 6.9 (not included here) and suggests a need of about one space per three passengers. The Chicago area developed a method of estimating current and future parking demand at each station, using data from ticket sales by mail:
Change-of-mode parking facilities can be located at the outer edges of the CBD, or at more remote distances. Those located near CBDs are served by local or special shuttle buses. Those located farther away are typically served by express buses, rapid transit, and/or suburban rail. An ITE committee found that bus-serviced lots have the greatest usage close to the CBD, with a smaller peak at the 11- to 13- mile range. Rail lots have the greatest usage in the range from 5 to 15 miles from the CBD. Most bus-serviced lots have transit times greater than automobile travel times, whereas those with rail typically have shorter travel times. Most change-of-mode lots have transit service for 14 or more hours per day, and peak-hour transit service headways of 25 minutes or less. In the Cleveland fringe, buses were reported operating with 5-minute headways during the peak hours.
Locational factors for parking facilities were identified by Ellis, Bennett, and Rassam: