To be effective, a zoning code must specify the number of required spaces and must contain sufficient controls to ensure that all the parking is convenient and usable.
Relation to Site and Joint Use
Zoning can aid sound community development if it causes all owners to provide adequate off-street parking and loading facilities for their property. Each building may have its own parking lot or garage, or the development of consolidated, common-use parking facilities may be more practical and desirable in a business area. However, zoning should apply to business districts (including the CBD) to the extent that each developer is required to contribute their fair share of the acquisition and development cost for the parking needed to serve their property. This can be done by cash contributions to an area parking fund in an amount equal to the estimated cost of providing the specified number of spaces.
Stall Sizes and Access
Good driveway design is particularly important for the higher volume commercial driveways. In areas with high pedestrian activity, it is good practice to restrict driveway widths and radii and to meet sidewalk grades and a short distance in form the curb, thus creating a short hump. Such measures ensure vehicular entry and exit at low speeds. In all other areas, use of greater widths, large radii, and flat driveway slopes frequently requiring step-down curbs is desirable to speed up the entry and exit of vehicles and thus increase ease and capacity of access. The recommended stall and access dimensions for zoning or local administrative regulations are covered in Chapter 7 of the Traffic Engineering Handbook, and in the ITE Committee 5D-8 Recommended Practice.