Wlf 541: Advanced Population Biology
Fall 2010 - 3 Credits
MWF 10:30-11:20 - CNR 203
Instructors: E. O. Garton, CNR 104E, 885-7426,
Brian Kennedy, CNR 103C, 885-5171,
Dan Schill, IDFG, Boise and Nampa, 334-3791, (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Office Hours: Oz Garton: MF 9:30-10:30 a.m.
TTh 3:30-4:30 p.m. Other times by arrangement
Have you read the classic papers that form the foundation for
modern theories of population ecology? Participants in this class will have the
opportunity to read and discuss some of the most significant and interesting
papers on population ecology, published in the scientific literature
historically and within the last decade. We will begin with a brief review on
the scientific method where we'll extend the classic Popperian paradigm to
incorporate complex issues such as pseudoreplication, multicausal systems,
quasi-experimentation and the growing use of information theoretic tools. We
will read a series of classic papers on theoretical topics and experimental
concepts that have continued to be important such as niche, competition, habitat
selection, natality, mortality, dispersal and life-history strategies before
exploring the genetic structure of populations. Next we will focus on
density-dependence, -independence, -vagueness, population cycles, eruptions,
chaos, regulation, and viability. A major section will explore fundamental and
optimization approaches to stability of predator-prey interactions while
evaluating these concepts in the context of modern harvest and management
practices. The final sections will explore efforts at integration and
application across large spatial scales for hierarchically structured
metapopulations and those population processes projected to experience impacts
due to climate and landscape change.
The primary goal of this course is to develop an understanding of the major concepts of
population dynamics. We will do this by reading and discussing a selection of classical
papers in population biology. The discussions are directed toward analyzing and criticizing the
concepts proposed and only secondarily toward criticizing the papers themselves. I hope
that this will stimulate your interest in the literature in the field of population
This course is conducted as a seminar in which the students and instructor lead
discussions of important papers selected from the literature in population biology. At appropriate times the instructor will provide brief comments to
help students understand the mathematical aspects of significance or the general subject
matter being discussed. Each student should prepare for a discussion on a particular paper
by reading the paper carefully. If you are in charge of a discussion on a topic you should
find a half-dozen other recent papers on the topic which support or refute
theory presented in the selected
paper. Hand out a brief bibliography at the start of the class and then spend about one
third of the period reviewing the selected paper for that day along with the supporting
papers. During the remaining time the student in charge should direct discussion of the
paper into a critical examination of the paper's implications and significance by raising
a series of questions for discussion. Try to avoid excessive criticism of the validity of
the paper but use it as a spring-board for better ideas.
A copy of each paper is available from a web site for the class. Each student in the class is responsible for reading the papers
before the presentation.
A short mid-term and final examination will be given in this course. Each will consist
of two take-home questions requiring the integration of the concepts covered. Answers will
be limited to two pages (500 words) per question. These two exams will make up one-half of
the grade, the other half being based on the students' paper presentations.
Download PAPERS --
A. SCIENTIFIC METHODS
8/25 EOG Romesburg, H. C. 1981. Wildlife science: gaining reliable
knowledge. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:293-313.
8/25 EOG Quinn, J. F., and A. E. Dunham. 1983. On hypothesis testing in
ecology and evolution. Amer. Natur. 122:602-617.
Hurlbert, S. H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of
ecological field experiments. Ecol. Monogr. 54:187-211.
8/27 SKIP Cook, T. D. and D. T. Campbell. 1979. Causal inference and the
language of experimentation. Pages 1-36 In Cook, T. D., and D. T. Campbell.
Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Houghton Mifflin
Co., Boston, Mass. 405 p.
8/27 Brian Hobbs, N. T. and R. Hilborn. 2006.
Alternatives to hypothesis testing in ecology: a guide to self teaching.
Ecological Applications 16:5-19.
8/27 Brian Sinclair, A. R. E. 1991. Science and the practice of wildlife
management. J. Wildl. Manage. 55:767-773.
9/1 GiffJames, F. C. and C. E. McCulloch. 1985. Data analysis and the
design of experiments in ornithology. Pages 1-63 In R. F. Johnston, ed. Current
Ornithology, Vol. 2, Plenum Press, New York, N. Y.
Giff Kuhn, Thomas S. 1970. The Structure of
Scientific Revolutions (2nd ed.). Chapter 2 - The route to normal science pp.
10-22. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
Giff Burnham, K. P. and D. R. Anderson. 2002. Model
Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach.
2nd ed. Chap. 8 Summary, pp. 437-454. Springer, New York, NY.
9/3 Dan Johnson, Douglas H. 1999. The
insignificance of statistical significance testing. Journal of
Wildlife Management 63:763-772.
9/3 Dan Garton,
E. O., J. Horne, J Aycrigg, and J. Ratti. 2010. Research and experimental design.
Preprint of pages ??-?? In Nova Silvy (editor). Techniques for Wildlife Investigations and Management. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD.
Hutchinson, G. Evelyn. Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor
Symposium Quantitative Biology 22:415-427.
9/8 Jeff Whittaker, R. H., S. A. Levin, and R. B. Root. 1973. Niche,
habitat and ecotope. Amer. Natur. 107:321-328.
9/10 Sam Root, R. B. 1967. The niche exploitation of the Blue-Gray
Gnatcatcher. Ecol. Monogr. 37:317-319, 331-349.
9/10 Sam Ayala, F. J. 1968. Genotype, environment and population numbers.
C. COMPETITION - FACILITATION
G. F. 1934. The Struggle for Existence. Williams and
Wilkins/Reprinted by Dover, New York, NY. pp 44-58, 90-113.
9/13 __ _ Ayala, F. J. 1969. Experimental invalidation of the
principle of competitive exclusion. Nature 224:1076-1079.
9/13 __ _ Roughgarden, J. 1983. Competition and theory in community
ecology. Amer. Natur. 122:583-601.
9/13 Simberloff, D. 1983. Competition theory, hypothesis testing, and
other community ecological buzzwords. Amer. Natur. 122:626-635.
9/13 _ __ Tilman, D. 1982. Resource Competition and Community Structure.
Monographs in Population Biology No. 17 ( p 43-96 only) Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton
9/15 Heller, H. C. 1971. Altitudinal zonation of chipmunks (Eutamias):
Interspecific aggression. Ecology 52:312-319.
Strong, D. R., Jr. 1983. Natural variability and the manifold
mechanisms of ecological communities. Amer. Natur. 122:636-660.
MacArthur, R. H. 1958. Population ecology of some warblers of
northeastern coniferous forests. Ecology 39:599-612, 617-619.
9/17 __ _ Odum, H. T. and W. C. Allee. 1954. A note on
the stable point of populations showing both intraspecific cooperation and
disoperation. Ecology 35: 95-97..
9/17 Noon, B. R. 1981. The distribution of an avian guild along a
temperate elevational gradient: The importance and expression of competition. Ecol.
9/17 Connell, J. H. 1983. On the prevalence and relative importance
of interspecific competition: evidence from field experiments. Amer. Natur. 122:661-696.
D. HABITAT SELECTION
Fretwell, S. D. & Lucas, H. L., Jr. 1970. On territorial
behavior and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. I.
Theoretical Development. Acta Biotheoretica 19: 16–36.
Van Horne, B. Density as a misleading indicator of habitat quality.
Journal of Wildlife Management 47:893-901.
Rosenzweig, M. L. 1991. Habitat selection and population
interactions: The search for mechanism. Amer. Natur. 137:S5-S28.
Pulliam, H. R. and B. J. Danielson. 1991. Sources, sinks, and
habitat selection: A landscape perspective on population dynamics. Amer. Natur.
E. NATALITY AND LIFE HISTORY STRATEGIES
Cody, M. 1966. A general theory of clutch size. Evolution
9/22 Murray, B. G., Jr. 1991. Sir Isaac Newton and the evolution of
clutch size in birds: A defense of the hypothetico-deductive method in ecology and
evolutionary biology. Pages 143-180 In J. L. Casti and A. Karlqvist (eds.) Beyond belief:
Randomness, predition and explanation in science. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 334p.
Murdoch, W.W. 1966. Population
stability and life history phenomena. Amer. Nat. 100:5-11.
1968. Pattern in life history and the environment. American
Charnov, E.L., & W.M. Schaffer. 1973.
Life history consequences of natural selection: Cole's result
revisited. Amer. Nat. 107:791-793.
Luckinbill, L.S. 1984. An
experimental analysis of a life history theory. Ecology 65:1170-1184.
M. R. R. M. Coleman and R. M. McDowall. 1988.
Aquatic productivity and the evolution of diadromous fish migration.
Science 239: 1291-1293.
M. R. 1996. Alternative reproductive strategies and tactics:
diversity within sexes. TREE 11(2):92-97.
Reznick, D., M. J. Bryant, and F. Bashey.
2002. r-and K-selection revisited: the role of population regulation
in life-history evolution. Ecology 83:1509-1520.
F. MORTALITY AND DISPERSAL
Caughley, G. 1966. Mortality patterns in mammals. Ecology
9/29 Botkin, D. B., and R. S. Miller. 1974. Mortality rates and
survival of birds. Amer. Natur. 108:181-192.
D. O., and S. B. Munch. 2002. Sustaining fisheries yields over
evolutionary time scales. Science 297: 94-96.
10/1 Wright, S. 1940. Breeding structure of populations in relation to
speciation. Amer. Natur.74:232-248.
10/1 Nelson, M. E. and L. D. Mech. 1987. Demes within a Northeastern
Minnesota deer population. pp 27-40 in B. D. Chepko-Sade and Z. T. Halpin, eds. Mammalian
Dispersal Patterns: The Effects of Social Structure on Population Genetics. Univ. Chicago
Press, Chicago, IL.
10/1 Lande, R. 1988. Genetics and demography in biological
conservation. Science 241:1455-1460.
H. DENSITY-DEPENDENCE, -INDEPENDENCE, -VAGUENESS
10/4 Solomon, M. E. 1958. Meaning of density-dependence and related
terms in population dynamics. Nature 181:1778-1780.
10/4 Andrewartha, H. G. 1961. Introduction to the study of animal
populations. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. pp 5-10 only.
Strong, D. R. 1984. Density vague ecology and liberal population
regulation in insects. pp. 313-327 in Price, P. W., C. N. Slobodchikoff, and W. S. Gaud,
(eds.). A new ecology: Novel approaches to interactive systems. 515 pp.
Ostfeld, R. S. and C. D. Canham. 1995. Density-dependent
processes in meadow voles: an experimental approach. Ecology 76: 521-532.
I. CYCLES, FLUCTUATIONS, ERUPTIONS, AND CHAOS
10/6 Chitty, D. 1967. The natural selection of self-regulatory
behavior in animal populations. Proc. Ecol. Soc. of Australia 2:51-78.
10/6 Christian, J. J., and D. E. Davis. 1964. Endocrines, behavior
and population. Science 146:1550-1560.
Keith, L. B., J. R. Cary, O. J. Rongstad, and M. C. Brittingham.
1984. Demography and ecology of a declining snowshoe hare population. Wildl. Monogr. No.
Krebs, C. J., S. Boutin, R. Boonstra, A. R. E. Sinclair, J. N. M. Smith, R. R.
Dale, K. Martin, and R. Turkington. 1995. Impact of food and
predation on the snowshoe hare cycle. Science 269: 112-115.
Krebs, C. J. 1970. Genetic and behavioral studies on fluctuating
vole populations. Proc. Adv. Study Inst. Dynamics Numbers Popul. (Oosterbeek), pp.
Caughley, G. 1970. Erruption of ungulate populations, with
emphasis on Himalayan thar in New Zealand. Ecology. 51(1):53-72.
10/11 May, R. M. 1974. Biological populations with non-overlapping
generations: stable points, stable cycles, and chaos. Science 186:645-647.
Tilman, D. and D. Wedin. 1991. Oscillations and chaos in the
dynamics of a perennial grass. Nature 353: 653-655.
Hanski, I., P. Turchin, E. Korpimaki, and H. Henttonen. 1993.
Population oscillations of boreal rodents: regulation by mustelid predators leads to
chaos. Nature 364:232-235.
Ritchie, M. E. 1992. Chaotic dynamics in food-limited
populations: implications for wildlife management. p 139-146 in D. R. McCullough and R. H.
Barrett (eds.) Wildlife 20001: Populations. Elsevier.
Lack, D. 1954. The natural regulation of animal numbers. Chapter 13. pp. 141-153. Food
as a limiting factor in birds. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Wynn-Edwards, V. C. 1962. Animal dispersion in relation to
social behaviors. Chapter 1, pp. 1-22. An outline of the principle of animal dispersion.
Watson, A. and R. Moss. 1969. Dominance, spacing behavior and
aggression in relation to population limitation in vertebrates, pp. 167-218 in Watson, A.
(ed.). Animal populations in relation to their food resources. Blackwell Sci. Pub.,
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population regulation. American Naturalist 132:652-661.
K. POPULATION VIABILITY
Shaffer, M. L. 1981. Minimum population sizes for species
conservation. BioScience 31(2):131-134.
Shaffer, M. L. 1985. The metapopulation and species
conservation: The special case of the northern spotted owl. pp. 86-99 in Gutiérrez, R.
J., and A. B. Carey (eds.). Ecology and management of the spotted owl in the Pacific
Northwest. USDA Forest Service, General Tech. Report PNW-185. Portland, OR. 119pp.
Lande, R. 1993. Risks of population extinction from
demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes.
American Naturalist 142: 911-927.
10/20 Shaffer, M. L., L. H.
Watchman, W. J. Snape, III and I. K. Latchis. 2002. Population
viability analysis and conservation policy. pp. 127-141 in S. r.
Beissinger and D. R. McCullough (eds). Population Viability Analysis.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
Harris, R. B., and F. W. Allendorf. 1988. Genetically effective
population size of large mammals: an assessment of estimators. Conservation Biology
Senner, J. W. 1980. Inbreeding depression and the survival of
zoo populations. pp. 209-224 in Soule, M. E., and B. A. Wilcox (eds.). Conservation
biology: An evolutionary-ecological perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
Chepko-Sade, B. D., and W. M. Shields. 1987. The effects of
dispersal and social structure on effective population size. pp.287-321 in Chepko-Sade, B.
D., and Z. T. Halpin, (eds.). Mammalian dispersal patterns. The effects of social
structure on population genetics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 324pp.
10/25 ______ Lotka,A. J. 1924. pp. 77-79,88-94 in
Elements of Physical Biology: reprinted in 1956 as Elements of Mathematical
Biology, Dover, New York, NY.
Holling, C. S. 1959. Some characteristics of simple types of
predation and parasitism. Canad. Entom. 91:385-398.
Holling, C. S. 1959. The components of predation as revealed by a
study of small mammal predation of the European Pine Sawfly. Canad. Entom. 90:293-320.
10/25 _____ Vucetich, J. A., R. O. Peterson, and C. L.
Schaefer. 2002. The effect of prey and predator densities on
wolf predation. Ecology 83:3003-3013.
Heinrich, B. and S. L. collins. 1983. Caterpillar
damage, and the game of hide-and-seek with birds. Ecology 64:592-602.
Gibb, J. A. 1962. L. Tinbergen's hypothesis of the role of
specific search images. Ibis 104:106-111.
Pyke, G. H., H. R. Pulliam, and E. L. Charnov. 1977. Optimal
foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. Quart. Rev. Biol. 52(2):137-154.
Sephens, D. W. and J. R. Krebs. 1986. Testing foraging models.
Chapter 9 In Foraging Theory. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.
Anderson, D. R. 1975. Optimal exploitation strategies for an
animal population in a Markovian environment: A theory and an example. Ecology
Peterman, R. M. 1977. A simple mechanism that causes collapsing
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Hanski, I. and M. Gilpin. 1991. Metapopulation dynamics: brief
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Harrison, S. 1991. Local extinction in a metapopulation context:
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Hansson, L. 1991. Dispersal and connectivity in metapopulations.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42:89-103.
Fritz, R. S. 1979. Consequences of insular population structure:
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Wiens, J. A. 1996. Wildlife in patchy environments:
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Watkinson, A. R., and W. J. Sutherland. 1995. Sources, sinks and
pseudo-sinks. Journal of Animal Ecology 64:126-130.
Boughton, D. A. 1999. Empirical evidence for complex source-sink
dynamics with alternative states in a butterfly metapopulation.
Ecology 80: 2727-2739.
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O. EFFORTS AT INTEGRATION
Bunnell, F. L. and D. E. N. Tait. 1981. Population dynamics of
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