Principles of Vegetation Measurement & Assessment
and Ecological Monitoring & Analysis


Veg Sampling
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Module 2 - Introduction to Measurements

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Lesson Instructions

  1. Read through the Overview and Learning Objectives.
  2. Complete the Required Reading.
  3. Read and review the Lessons.
  4. Visit suggested Internet Sites in the Lessons.
  5. Check the schedule for the required Assignment.
  6. Complete assignments and submit by Blackboard by Midnight on Tuesday, September 04.

ReadingSuggested Further Reading:


Principals of Measurement, Chapter 2 (pp 5-27), Forest Mensuration by Bertram Husch et al (3rd Edition: Wiley).



Numerical Considerations, Chapter 1 (pp 4-6), Forest Measurements by Avery and Burkhart (5th Edition: McGraw Hill).

Learning Materials


Recommended Reading:


Slides Lessons



What this Lesson Covers


What, When, Where, & How? These are the classic questions to solve any mystery. The same questions apply to determining appropriate vegetation monitoring approaches. In this module we will focus on "where" with a small dose of "how." 

The beginning of any endeavor also requires mastery of the local language. In vegetation sampling, the "language" is rooted in sampling and statistics. This module is designed as an introduction to the language of vegetation measurement.

Learning Objectives

After this module you will be able to:

  • Understand the critical need for units when you report measurements.

  • Explain why we use both the English and Metric measurement systems.

  • Understand sources of errors and uncertainty.

  • Explain the terms accuracy, bias, and precision.

  • Understand how different errors are combined and calculated.

  • Understand how to describe data in terms of minimum, maximum, mean, and variance.

  • Select an appropriate sampling scheme based on requirements for scientific investigation or management objectives.