[RSS][Google]

http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/

Library Philosophy and Practice 2011

ISSN 1522-0222

Teaching Effectiveness, Availability, Accessibility, and Use of Library and Information Resources Among Teaching Staff of Schools of Nursing in Osun and Oyo State, Nigeria

Moses Oladele Adeoye
Lautech Medical Laibrary
College of Health Science
Osogbo, Osun State Nigeria

S.O. Popoola
Department Of Library, Archival, and Information Studies
University of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria

Introduction

Background to the Study

In each society there are facilities other than classrooms that can contribute in no small measure to teaching and learning process. For learning to take place learners must have access to necessary information materials and resources. They have to interact with tangible and intangible resources and institutions to ensure some levels of performance. In an academic environment like the studies study, one of the main sources of information is the library.

Roberson (2005) defines a library as an institution that manages the intellectual products that individual can gain access to readily. Iyanda and Salawu (2006) on the other hand sees library as a building, an instructional and self development centre, which operate as an integral part of the entire school environment. Also Ranganathan as quoted by Iyanda and Salawu (2006) describes library as a public institution or an establishment charged with the care of a collection of books the duty of making them accessible to those who require the use of them and the task of converting every person in its neighborhood into habitual library goers and readers of books.

Libraries provide resources for knowledge acquisition, recreation, personal interests and inter-personal relationships for all categories of users. However in an academic environment, attention is basically focused on academic and non-academic staff, students and researchers.

The philosophy of librarianship is based on the concept of library services and provision of relevant resources for users. To this end, Professional Librarians continue to strive to collect, store, organize and disseminate all forms of recorded knowledge in order to satisfy both present and future information needs of users. Library resources are the stock in trade of librarians. These are the materials in the library make services possible. They are the materials which the users come to consult, read or borrow. Library resources are many and varied, but they can be divided into two broad categories namely “printed and non printed materials”.The printed materials are books, pamphlets periodicals, newspapers and reference resources .

Non-printed materials are however, often referred to as audio-visual resources. They are the product of advanced technology, some of which require special equipment to operate. Non-printed resources can be grouped into three (i.e. Audio, visual and audio-visual). We also have electronic resources as part of resources in the libraries.

Popoola and Haliso (2009) define library information resources as those information bearing materials. That are in both printed and electronic formats. Such as textbooks, journals, indexes, abstracts, newspapers and magazines, reports, CD-ROM databases, internet/E-mail, video tapes/cassettes, diskettes magnetic disk, computers, micro forms e.t.c.

These information materials are the raw materials that libraries acquire, catalogue, stock, and make available to their patrons, as well as use to provide various other services.

Teachers need various kinds of information for teaching and research for the purposes of impacting knowledge in students and self development. To achieve this, the right information must be available for the right person at the right time in its appropriate format. Which are the responsibilities of the library. Oguntuase and Falaiye (2004) agree with this view by observing that the most effective way to mobilize people is through the provision of required information. In the most useable form and that such information should be provided for the benefit of a large number of people.

Nursing Education and Teaching Effectiveness

Akinyele (1999) defines education as the process of learning in order to develop physically, socially, emotionally, intellectually and economically. An educated person is not only literate but has also developed his or her mental and reasoning powers and is knowledgeable. Thus, the ground purpose of education is to draw out all desirable changes in the behaviour through the growth and development of the learner’s physical, mental and spiritual capabilities to enable him have a useful, enjoyable and productive life in the society, workplace and home. In reference to Nursing, the International Council of Nurses describe Nursing Education as “a planned educational programmed which provides broad and sound foundation for effective practice of nursing and for advanced and continuous education” the aim of nursing education and training is to teach the students of nursing to reason and to strengthen them to grow throughout their succeeding professional life as effective practitioners and citizens.

To teach can be described as to enable or cause somebody to do something by instructing and training him. Teaching take place when a specific lesson is given to the learners at school or elsewhere on a relevant course, or when a teacher explains, shows and states something, by way of instruction to learners. Thus teaching is the act of impacting knowledge. Azikiwe (1998) affirms that before teaching could said to be effective teacher must consider the following eight principles of learning and teaching:

Environment and Background of Learner, Individual Differences, Transfer of Learning, Organization, Motivation, Methodology, Reward, Evaluation.

Akinyele (1999) in his own contributions to teaching effectiveness identifies eight principles of teaching and learning namely: perception, readiness, motivation, participation, evaluation, multiple learning, practice and transfer/integration/ association. He sees these principles of teaching and learning as the fundamental reasoning or assumption upon which effective learning and teaching are based.

Statement and Objective

The ability of the academic library to provide the available learning resources is being continually undermined and called into question. In spite of the fact that library is the supportive input for any academic institutions for teaching, learning and research. It is observed that various institutions’ managements are not providing adequate library resources for their institutions, and also in some places where these resources are available; they are not put into maximum use. In the light of this, this study would examine teaching effectiveness, availability and use of library resources among teaching staff of schools of Nursing in Osun and Oyo States, Nigeria.

Objective of the Study

The purpose of this study is to:

  • identify varieties of library information resources available for use in the schools of nursing in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.
  • determine the accessibility of the library information resources in these schools
  • investigate the library use patterns of the teaching staff of the schools of nursing in Osun and Oyo States
  • determine the relevance of the resources to the curriculum of the schools and investigate how the uses of the library resources affect the effectiveness of the teachers in their teaching
  • determine the availability and uses of ICT facilities in these libraries
  • proffer solutions to the identified problems.

SIgnificance of the Study

The significance of this study can be expressed in a number of ways, part of the findings of the study will help to properly establish and place the library in its rightful position within the set up of the schools of Nursing under research. It will also help to identify availability or non-availability, use or non-use and inadequacies of libraries in the areas to be covered by this study with a view of alerting the authorities on its implications.

Furthermore, the findings will constitute a useful tool in the hands of curriculum planners and other stake-holders with particular regards to schools of nursing library development. The study will also contribute significantly to the growing number of literature in the field of medical librarianship.

It will provide opportunities for teachers to develop proactive approach towards the use of library.

Scope of the Study

This study focuses mainly on the Teaching staff of the Schools of Nursing in Osun and Oyo States, Nigeria. These schools are Seventh-Day Adventist school of Nursing Ile-Ife, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex School of Nursing, Ile-Ife twenty, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex School of Nursing, Ilesa and Osun State school of Nursing Osogbo. Others includes Baptist Medical Centre School of Nursing Ogbomoso, Baptist Medical Center School of Nursing Shaki, University College Hospital Ibadan School of Nursing and Oyo State School of Nursing, Eleyele Ibadan. Availability and use of library resources among their teaching staff will be extensively researched into.

Literature Review

The role of Nursing School Library is to provide informational materials in support of the objectives of the parent institutions which are mainly teaching, learning, research, public services and conservation of knowledge and ideas (Ifidon, 1985). Academic libraries are integral part of the institutions they serve. They have for long been recognized as the hearts of their institutions. They design their collections and services to meet the institutional programmes of their parent institutions. .

The concept Library “resources” is used to mean anything that can provide intellectual stimulation to the reader/learner and it includes books, periodicals, newspapers, pamphlets and ephemera, audio materials, film materials, graphic computers etc. as well as individuals and objects in the community. (Elaturoti1977).

Library resources according to Gana (1992) include everything that is used in providing the required services to the clientele. Fayose (2000) identifies a library resource as those materials which enable libraries to carry their function out effectively. They are made up of books and other information bearing media. Library resources can be divided into groups according to their functions and level of scholarship or according to their different formats. In tertiary institutions for example the resources fall into two major categories according to the level of scholarship and their function. These include study/teaching materials and research materials.

Study/Teaching materials are the resources required by students for their study. They consists of recommended textbooks, books to support class texts, journals, past examination papers, reference books, monograph etc. while the research materials are used by higher degree students and lecturers. These are made up of periodicals, documents of different kinds, treaties, manuscripts, pamphlets, government publications conference proceedings and papers etc. (Fayose, 1995).

Apotiade (2002) defines library resources as the stock in trade of the librarian. In categorizing Human resources in the library (Apotiade, 2004) came up with 3 major categories i.e. Professional staff, para-professional and supportive staff.

The professional staffs are those who have Bachelor of library and information science (BLIS) Master of Library and Information Studies (MLIS) or PhD in librarianship. The para-professional staffs are the personnel that have Diploma or Certificates in Library Studies, and the Supportive staff are those that carry out administrative functions such as accountants, personnel staff, clerks, messengers, cleaners, office assistant etc.

Library Resources Available

The American Nurses’ Association (1980) defines nursing as “diagnoses and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems”. Florence Nightingale in her view as quoted by Abba Kale (2005) defines nursing practice as “putting the patient in the best condition for nature to act”

Most nursing school library learning resources are acquired to enable students and teachers to prepare for leaning, teaching and research in accordance with the basic functions of the institution. Rankin (1992) identifies five basic functions the Health Science library collection is meant to serve. These include the education and training of health professionals, administration of healthcare services and education programmes. It also meant to preserve institutional publications and related materials, training of staff and students and clinical practice and healthcare services. Also Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (2004) said interalia “for an institution to be approved as a school of nursing, it must have a library with the following: A seating capacity of at least fifty (50) Book shelves, Magazines/journals stands, At least 500 relevant nursing textbooks, At least 100 research papers, journals or abstract, At least 100 reference books in nursing and professional librarians.

Popoola (1998) and Komolafe (1994) affirmes that the provision and efficient use of information resources are central to any meaningful research and teaching in Nigeria.

Another important library resource in nursing is information communication technology ICT. According to Elikahmenor as quoted by (Olumide, 2007). Information technology is defines as the acquisition processing, storage and dissemination of information by means of computer, office machine and telecommunications. Computer provides the processing storage and retrieval facilities for the transfer of data and information. Properly use of (ICT) will help the growth and development of libraries in different directions especially in nursing schools where library resources are costly. Information technology allows easy integration of various activities in the library for the benefit of users.

It eliminates duplication of effort within a library and between libraries in a network. libraries in network. It eliminates some uninteresting and repetitive work. It also helps to increase the range of services offered. Information technology ultimately may save and /or generate income and it increases efficiently and effectiveness.

Omekwu (2005) pointed out that information technology can be effectively used to integrate the apparently complex systems into coordinated functional and effective network. Agba (2004) opines that it is not an exaggeration to say that information technology availability and its effectiveness may facilitate its use. His reason is that a user friendly types of information technology available increases effectively use.

Accessibility of Library Resources

Accessibility of information sources is an important recurring theme in the literature. According to Aguolu and Aguolu (2002), resources may be available in the library and even identified bibliographically as relevant to one’s subject of interest, but the user may not be able to lay hands on them.. The more accessible information sources are, the more likely they are to be used. Readers tend to use information sources that require the least effort to access. These observations have been validated by empirical studies such as Slater (1963), Allen (1968), and Rosenberg (1967). The user may encounter five possible types of inaccessibility problems. These are conceptual, linguistic, critical, bibliographic, and physical inaccessibility. Aguolu and Aguolu in date notes that availability of an information source does not necessarily imply its accessibility, because the source may be available but access to it prevented for one reason or the other.

Olowu (2004) identifies natural and artificial barriers to free access to information. The library’s poor reputation was attributed to lack of accessibility of information sources. Iyoro (2004) examines the impact of serial publications in the promotion of educational excellence among information professionals receiving further training at the University of Ibadan. The study looks at the perception of how serial accessibility has contributed to students’ learning process. Serials were found to play significant role in the acquisition of knowledge, because the serial collection was easily and conveniently accessible.

In a similar study by Oyediran-Tidings (2004) at Yaba College of Technology, Lagos, low use of the library by students were observed. This was attributed to expressed accessibility problems. Neelamegham (1981) had identifies accessibility as one of the prerequisites of information use while Kuhlthau (1991) argues that the action of information seeking depends on the needs, the perceived accessibility, sources, and information seeking habits.

Aguolu and Aguolu (2002) reveal that efforts are being made worldwide to promote access to information in all formats, they lament the attendant of underdevelopment such as power failure, machine breakdowns, and lack of spare parts and technicians, which intermittently stall the performance of the modern gadgets of information storage and transfer in developing countries.

Use of Library Resources in Nursing Schools

Information is of paramount importance to the development of an individual and for the growth of the nation. Information can be put into several uses and for various purposes. Hawkins cited in Faboyinde (2006) noted “that knowledge and information have become the most important currency for productivity, competitiveness and increased wealth and prosperity’. The library is the store house of knowledge and information, it provides both access to information resources and the information itself. Library help the nursing schools to achieve the objectives of producing nurses that are information literate and are prepared for life long education. Ubogu (2006) stated that libraries should provide access to information resources; expert professional support to facilitate thorough and accurate use of all library resources, access to library materials and services to the community”. Therefore libraries are important in helping academics generate information for the purpose of effective teaching of students and research.

Lucas (2003) lamented that valuable information generated from health research is not widely applied to the benefit of the Nigerian people due to the fact that many practitioners are not aware of the current scientific information. Many practitioners do not have regular access to current literature that college Medical Libraries/Nursing school libraries can acquire. The absence of current relevant Health literature has resulted in students, teachers, faculty, practitioners and policy makers who have failed to take notice of current ideas on best teaching methods, indigenous practice or take advantage of experience from other parts of the world in practice and teaching.

Studies of nurse’s teacher’s use of printed materials show differences in awareness of research and availability of information resources, both of which are often limited in school library, hospitals and primary care setting. Mitchell (1995). Royle (1993) noted that most nurses tutors read clinical or technical journals rather than research journals and rarely visit libraries. Royle (1997) further find our that nursing tutors that engaged in further education or research, use library resources as well as indexes and computerized data bases.

Teaching Effectiveness

The quality of teaching, research, and community services of teachers in any institution depends on information sources and services. Information availability, accessibility, and use are essential to the teaching, research, and service activities of nursing school teachers.

According to Popoola and Haliso (2009) Teaching effectiveness is seen as the ability of a teacher to inculcate knowledge and skills in students, as well as change their behaviour for better living. Also Adam (1993) and Ismaila (1999) noted that teachers’ knowledge of subject matter, skill proficiency and resourcefulness could be linked to school effectiveness, teacher effectiveness and students’ academic performance. In other words, one of the requirements for teaching effectiveness is improved knowledge of subject matter acquired through research, use of library information resources and services.

Schwear & Gebbie (1976) in his book titled “creative teaching in clinical nursing” associate teaching effectiveness in nursing with desirable character and professional qualifications, he said it is the way in which the individual teacher uses these characteristics and qualifications that determines the degree of creativity responsible for effective teaching. However, he said, the degree and kind of creative teaching in nursing are directly proportional to the teacher’s degree of self-concepts, knowledge of content, clinical competence and ability to establish satisfying working relationship with students, pears, nursing service personnel, and other community agency personnel.

Teaching effectiveness variables and indicators could be used to assess the effectiveness with which nursing school teachers perform their teaching functions, much In the same way as the quality of their research functions is usually assessed by the quality of research activities and publications, self evaluation of the teachers themselves and students’ evaluation of their teachers’ quality of teaching.

Nevertheless, the Nursing schools teachers can best benefit maximally from the use of library information resources and services when they actually use them continuously for updating their knowledge and teaching skills. Adeleke (2005) asserts that if the library is to contribute to the advancement of knowledge, it must not only provide the resources but also ensure effective use of the resources by its clienteles. Okiy (2000), in support of this claim, posited that for the library to perform its role adequately, its resources must be effectively used. Thus, the nursing schools teachers need to have access to relevant information resources in their schools libraries and make effective use of them to improve their teaching effectiveness.

Methodology

The population used for this study consists of eight (8) Schools of Nursing in Osun and Oyo States. These Schools have either a central library or a classroom collection. The aim of the study is to collect data on the availability and use of library information resources as it affects the teaching effectiveness of the teachers in these nursing Schools. This is to enable the researcher to measure the preparedness of these Schools towards the achievements of the expected role it ought to achieve in the health educational system. The complete sampling technique was used, i.e. Total enumeration technique was used to cover all the 156 teaching staff teaching in eight (8) Schools of Nursing in Osun and Oyo States, Nigeria.

The data collection instruments for this study are questionnaires, which was developed by the researcher and direct observation of the researcher.

Two types of questionnaire were developed, one for the Head of Departments to access their teachers teaching effectiveness and other for the teaching staff of the institutions under study.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Two sets of questionnaires were used for the data gathering process. The first set of questionnaire was directed to the teaching staff of Schools of Nursing in Osun and Oyo States. Questions structured were related to availability, accessibility, relevancy and use of library resources in the selected Nursing Schools. One hundred and fifty-eight (158) copies of this questionnaire were administered to teaching staff, while one hundred and forty-seven (147) were retrieved.

The second set of questionnaire was however meant for Heads of Departments to appraise/evaluate the teaching effectiveness of their teachers. One hundred and fifty eight (158) copies of this questionnaire were administered to heads of departments while one hundred and forty seven (147) were retrieved.

Table 1 Distribution of Respondents According to Sex

CHARACTERISTICS

FREQUENCE NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

VALID PERCENTAGE

CUMMULATIVE PERCENTAGE

SEX

Male

Female

Total

60

87

147

40.8

59.2

100

40.8

59.2

100

40.8

100

Table 1 represented the distribution of respondents according to their sex. The total number of one hundred and forty seven respondents in the study comprised of 60 (40.8%) males and 87 (59.2%) females. The highest respondents were female. This showed that female nursing teachers were more than male nursing teachers.

Table 2 Distribution of Respondents According to Marital Status

CHARACTERISTICS

FREQUENCE NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

VALID PERCENTAGE

CUMMULATIVE PERCENTAGE

MARITAL STATUS

Single

Married

21

126

14.3

85.7

14.3

85.7

14.3

100

Total

147

100

100

Table 2 revealed that out of one hundred and forty seven (147) respondents, twenty one 21 (14.3%) were single while 126 (85.7) were married. The results in table 4.4 indicate that married respondents were more than single respondents.

Table 3 Distribution of Respondents According to their Educational Qualification

CHARACTERISTICS

FREQUENCE NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

VALID PERCENTAGE

CUMMULATIVE PERCENTAGE

EDU. QUALIFI.

Basic Nursing

B.Sc Nursing

M.Sc Nursing

Ph.D

BLIS

DLS

62

71

6

4

1

3

42.2

48.3

4.1

2.7

.7

2.0

42.2

48.3

4.1

2.7

.7

2.0

42.2

90.5

94.6

97.3

98.0

100

Total

147

100

100

The academic qualification of the respondents table 3 was designed to know the educational background of respondents in all the schools of nursing studied. The results showed that sixty-two (62) respondents representing 42.2% possessed Basic Nursing Certificate, seventy-one (71) respondents representing 48.3% possessed B.Sc Nursing Certificate.

Six(6) respondents representing 4.1% possessed Master Degree, four (4) respondents representing 2.7% possessed Ph.D certificate while one (1) respondent an NYSC representing 0.7% possessed BLIS and three (3) respondents representing 2.0% possessed DLIS. The results showed that Bachelor Degree Certificate in Nursing were the highest respondents in all the schools of nursing studied.

Table 4. Distribution of Respondents According to their Job Status

CHARACTERISTICS

FREQUENCE NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

VALID PERCENTAGE

CUMMULATIVE PERCENTAGE

STATUS/DESIGNA.

Tutors

Snr. Nursing Tutors

DNS

51

44

52

34.7

29.9

35.4

34.7

29.9

35.4

34.7

64.6

100.0

Total

147

100.0

100.0

In terms of job status of the respondents, fifty-one (51) respondents representing 34.7% were nursing tutors, forty-four (44) respondents representing 29.9% were senior nursing tutors, while fifty-two respondents representing 35.4% were in the categories of Directors of Nursing Services. It revealed that those in the categories of Director of Nursing Services were the highest respondents as far as status of respondents were concerned.

TABLE 5 Mean scores of Library Information resources availability to the Respondents

S/N

RESOURCES

MEANS

STD DEVIATION

VARIANCE

1.

Books

3.62

0.77

0.594

2.

Journals

3.39

0.49

0.239

3.

Dictionaries

3.29

0.67

0.452

4.

Encyclopedias

2.97

1.01

1.019

5.

Handbooks

2.84

0.88

0.781

6.

Newspapers/Magazines

2.83

1.25

1.567

7.

Manuals

2.61

0.88

0.773

8.

Reports

2.59

0.82

0.668

9.

Atlases/Map

2.50

0.93

0.868

10.

Directories

2.49

0.91

0.827

11.

Biographies

2.48

0.82

0.676

12.

Bibliographies

2.45

1.09

1.181

13.

Almanacs

2.35

0.93

0.872

14.

Computer

2.33

1.37

1.865

15.

Gazettes

2.24

0.92

0.854

16.

Abstracts/Index

2.53

1.02

1.032

17.

Internet Facilities

1.99

1.26

1.589

18.

CD-ROM Facilities

1.77

1.15

1.330

Overall Mean

2.63

0.95

In order to collect data on the availability of different library information resources, the respondents were requested to rate the level of availability of each of the library information resources in table 4.7 on a 4-point scale: Very Readily Available = 4, Readily Available = 3, Occasionally Available = 2, and Not Available = 1. The mean score, standard deviation and variance score of each of the resources were then calculated as provided in the table 5 The result in table 5 shows that textbooks (x = 3.62, SD = .77) were very readily available to the respondents, while other library information resources journals (x = 3.39, SD = .49), dictionaries (x = 3.29, SD = 0.67), encyclopedias (x = 2.97, SD = 1.01), handbooks (x = 2.84, SD = 0.88), Newspapers/Magazines (x = 2.83, SD = 1.25), Manuals (x = 2.61, SD = 0.88), reports (x = 2.59, SD = 0.82), atlases/maps (x = 2.50, SD = 0.93) were readily available to the respondents, whereas internet facilities (x = 1.99, SD = 1.26), CD-ROM facilities (x = 1.77, SD = 1.15) were not available to the respondents. The overall mean of library information resources

(x = 2.63) shows that the library information resources were readily available.

Table 6 Mean scores of Library Information Resources Accessibility to the Respondents.

S/N

RESOURCES

N

MEANS

STD. DEVIATION

VARIANCE

1.

Books

147

3.74

0.45

0.207

2.

Encyclopedias

147

3.38

0.57

0.320

3.

journals

147

3.37

0.65

0.428

4.

Dictionaries

147

3.28

0.67

0.449

5.

Handbooks

147

2.95

0.74

0.553

6.

Newspapers/Magazines

147

2.86

1.23

1.502

7.

Atlases/Maps

147

2.77

0.70

0.494

8.

Directories

147

2.76

0.65

0.419

9.

Manuals

147

2.74

0.78

0.604

10.

Reports

147

2.70

0.66

0.430

11.

Biographies

147

2.65

0.66

0.434

12.

Almanacs

147

2.62

0.70

0.484

13.

Bibliographies

147

2.61

0.98

0.953

14.

Abstracts/Indexes

147

2.54

0.99

0.976

15.

Gazettes

147

2.49

0.72

0.512

16.

Computers

147

2.35

1.36

1.847

17.

CD-ROM Facilities

147

2.31

1.18

1.395

18.

Internet Facilities

147

2.07

1.25

1.557

Overall Mean

2.79

0.83

In order to assess the accessibility of the listed library information resources, the respondents were asked to indicate how accessible were the library information resources to them using 4 point scale: Very Easily Accessible = 4, Easily Accessible = 3, Accessible = 2 and Not Accessible = 1.

The mean score, standard deviation and variance scores for each of the resources were then calculated as provided in table 6. The results in table 6 shows that textbooks (x = 3.74, SD = 0.45) were very easily accessible while encyclopedias (x =- 3.38, SD = 0.57), journals (x = 3.37, SD = 0.65), dictionaries (x = 3.28, SD = 0.67), handbooks (x = 2.95), newspapers/magazines (x = 2.86, SD = 1.23), atlases/maps (x = 2.77, SD = 0.70) were easily accessible. The overall mean of library information resources accessibility (x = 2.79) shows that the library information resources available were highly accessible.

Table 7 Frequency of Library Use by the Respondents.

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE

VALID

PERCENTAGE

CUMMULATIVE

PERCENTAGE

Daily

47

32.0

32.0

32.0

Once a week

41

27.9

27.9

59.9

Twice a week

55

37.4

37.4

97.3

Fortnightly

4

2.7

2.7

100

147

100.0

100

The researcher wants to know the frequency of use of the library by the respondents. When asked the question 32% of the respondents use the library daily, 27.9% of the respondents use the library once a week while 37.4% uses the libraries twice a week and only 2.7% of the respondents use the libraries fortnightly. The analysis above shows that many of the respondents use the library twice a week.

Table 8 Reasons for using Nursing Library by the Respondents.

OPTIONS

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE

VALID PERCENTAGE

CUMMULATIVE

PERCENTAGE

For Research

67

45.6

45.6

45.6

Preparation of Lesson Notes

60

40.8

40.8

86.4

Clinical work

14

9.5

9.5

95.9

For studying for educational advancement

4

2.7

2.7

98.6

Relaxation

2

1.4

1.4

100

147

100.0

100

The respondents were asked to state the reasons for using the library, 45.6% of the total respondents were using the library for research, 40.8% were using the library for preparation of their lesson notes, 9.5% for clinical work, 2.7% use the library in studying for examination while only 1.4% of the respondents use the library for relaxation.

Table 9 Mean Scores of Library Information Resources use by the Respondents

S/N

RESOURCES

N

MEANS

STD DEVIATION

VARIANCE

1.

Books

147

3.61

.53

.280

2.

Journals

147

3.43

.59

.342

3.

Encyclopedias

147

3.37

.64

.414

4.

Dictionaries

147

3.24

.72

515

5.

Newspapers/Magazines

147

3.08

1.04

1.089

6.

Handbooks

147

2.97

.77

.588

7.

Biographies

147

2.90

.66

.435

8.

Atlases/Maps

147

2.84

.76

.576

9.

Manuals

147

2.80

.78

.611

10.

Directories

147

2.76

.65

.419

11.

Reports

147

2.72

.65

.422

12.

Almanacs

147

2.65

.73

.532

13.

Bibliographies

147

2.61

.98

.953

14.

Abstracts/Indexes

147

2.54

.99

.976

15.

Gazettes

147

2.49

.72

.512

16.

CD-ROM Facilities

147

2.05

1.10

1.210

17.

Computers

147

1.82

1.09

1.188

18.

Internet Facilities

147

1.74

1.07

1.152

Overall Mean

2.76

0.80

In order to collect data on the use of different library information resources, the respondents were requested to rate their use of each of the library information resources in table 4.15 on a 4-point scale: Very Highly Used = 4, Highly Used = 3, Occasionally Used = 2, and Not Used = 1. The mean, standard deviation and variance scores of each of the resources were then calculated as provided in the table 9. The results shows that textbooks (x = 3.61, SD = .53) were very highly used, journals ( x = 3.43, AS = .59), encyclopedias (x = 3.37, SD = .64), dictionaries (x = 3.24, SD - .72), newspapers/magazines (x = 3.08, SD = 1.04), handbooks (x = 2.97, SD = .77), bibliographies (x = 2.90, SD = .66), atlases/maps (x = 2.84, SD = .66), manuals (x = 2.80, SD = .78) were highly used by the respondents. Whereas CD-ROM facilities (x = 2.05, SD = 1.10), computers (x = 1.82, SD = 1.09), internet facilities (x = 1.74, SD = 1.07). The overall mean of library information resources use (x = 2.76) shows that the available library information resources were highly used by the respondents.

TABLE 10 Mean Scores of the Respondents Teaching Effectiveness Evaluation by the Head Of Departments.

TEACHING EFFECTIVE

N

MEANS

STD DEVIATION

VARIANCE

Adequacy of the course materials

147

3.81

0.47

.223

Teaching methodology of the subject teachers

147

3.72

0.45

.200

Human relation of the subject teachers

147

3.67

0.47

.222

Expertise of the subject teacher

147

3.64

0.48

.231

Teachers punctuality at class

147

3.63

0.53

.282

Class environment

147

3.63

0.48

.234

Competency of the subject teachers

147

3.62

0.51

2.64

Class management and control in the class

147

3.62

0.49

.237

Overall Mean

147

3.66

0.49

In order to assess the teaching effectiveness of the teaching staff of the schools of nursing in Osun and Oyo States, the heads of departments in each of the schools were asked to evaluate one hundred and forty-seven respondents in their respective schools on a 5-point scale: Excellent = 5, Very Good = 4, Good = 3, Fair = 2, and Poor = 1.

The results in table 10 shows that adequacy of the course materials (x = 3.81, SD = .47), teaching methodology of the subject teachers (x = 3.72, SD = .45), human relation of the subject teachers (x = 3.67, SD = .47), expertise of the subject teachers (x = 3.64, SD = .48), teachers’ punctuality at class (x = 3.63, SD = .53), classroom environment (x = 3.63, SD = .48), competency of the subject teachers (x = 3.62, SD = .51) and class management and control (x = 3.62, SD = .49).

The overall mean of teaching effectiveness (x = 3.66, SD = 0.46). From this overall mean, one can therefore deduce that the teaching effectiveness of the respondent is very good.

However, to find out if the library information resources availability, accessibility and use correlated with the teaching effectiveness of the respondents, simple and multiple correlation analysis were carried out. The results are presented below:

TABLE 11 Summary of Test of Significant Correlations between Independent Variables and Teaching Effectiveness of the Respondents.

Teaching Effectiveness Correlation(r) between the variables

Variables Teaching effectiveness (TE)

Mean = 3.66

SD = 0.49

Variables

N

TE Correlation(r)

P

Job Status

147

0.073

0.0562

Sex

147

0.110

0.0724

Marital Status

147

0.068

0.0835

Educational Qualification

147

0.463

0.0341

Availability of Lib. Inf. Resources

147

0.540

0.0011

Accessibility of Lib. Inf. Resources

147

0.602

0.0241

use of Lib. Inf. Resources

147

0.706

0.0314

Table 11 presents summary of test of significant correlations between (TE) teaching effectiveness and independent variables. One can deduce that teaching effectiveness has significant positive correlation with educational qualification (r= 0.463, P< 0.05), availability of library information resources (r = 0.602, P< 0.05), accessibility of library information resources (r = 0. 602, P< 0.05), and use of library information resources (r = 0.706, P< 0.05) while job status (r = 073, P>0.05), and marital status (r = 0.110, P>0.05) had no significant correlation with teaching effectiveness of the respondents.

Also, to determine the extent to which the linear combination of library information resources availability, accessibility and use significantly determine the teaching effectiveness of the respondents, multiple regression analysis was performed.

Table 12: Regression of Teaching Effectiveness on Library Information Resources Availability, Accessibility, and Use

Source

Degree of Freedom

Sum of Squares

Mean Square

F- Ratio

P

Regression

3

22. 123

7. 374

4. 36

0.006

Error

143

242. 040

1. 693

Total

146

264. 163

Adjusted R2 = 0.254 Adjusted R = 0.501 Standard Error of Estimate (SEE) = 15.558

From table 12 it was clearly seen that library information resources availability accessibility and use when taken together significantly determine the teaching effectiveness of the respondents (F= 4.36, df = 3.146, P<0.05).

However, further analysis in table 12 shows that library information resources availability (B= 0.0837, t= 3.11, P< 0.05), accessibility of library information resources (B= 0.1229, t= 2.43, P< 0.05) and use of library information resources (B= 0.1502, t= 311, P< 0.05). Individually has significantly determined effectiveness of the respondents.

Table 13

Predictor

Coef

(B)

St Dev

T

P

Constant

17.6523

0.8250

21.40

0.000

Resources Avai. (X1)

0.08974

0.02882

3.11

0.002

Resources Acc. (X2)

0.12291

0.05059

2.43

0.016

Resources Uti. (X3)

0.15022

0.04823

3.11

0.020

The estimated regression model of teaching effectiveness using the library information resources availability, accessibility and use variables is therefore:

TE = 17.6523 + 0.0897x1 + 0.1239x2 + 0.1502x3.

Where x1 = library information resources availability

X2 = library information resources accessibility

X3 = library information resources use

And the value of BO=17.7 is the constant.

Discussion of Findings

Seventh Day Adventist School of Nursing, Ile-Ife and Osun State School of Nursing, Osogbo were the schools that had the highest number of respondents in the study. Gender distribution of the respondents in the eight schools of nursing in Osun and Oyo States showed that females were in the majority. Majority of the respondents were married while the highest number of the respondents possessed B.Sc Nursing as their educational qualification. The least number of the respondents came from Baptist Medical Centre Schools of Nursing, Shaki.

From my observation all the schools studied have what they called libraries but not all were well established libraries. My observation at U.C.H. Schools of Nursing library showed that they have well established library with adequate physical facilities such as tables, chairs, lending, desk and adequate shelving patterns. Their resources were well catalogued and classified. Similar situation exist at S.D.A. Ife School of Nursing, while others do not have adequate library facilities.

It was also observed that library information resources in some of the libraries studied were kept unaccessable to the students but only highly accessible to the teaching staff. These does not conform to the low of librarianship as postulated by S.R Ranoanathan that “every reader his/her book and every book its reader”. All the library users supposed to have equal access to the library information resources, though this study is mainly concern with teaching staff but since the situation is an aberration in library practice it has to be pointed out for correction.

In terms of human resources in the library, the study revealed that U.C.H. schools of nursing, S.D.A. Ife Schools of Nursing and OAUTHC, Ilesa School of Nursing have a staff each with Diploma in Library Studies as their librarians while the Osun State School of Nursing Osogbo had an NYSC with BLIS and one school certificate holders to manage the library. In other schools, school certificate holders were in-charge to manage the library. Or

The study revealed that majority of the respondents use the library for research and preparation of notes for their students Majority of the respondents indicated that they search for library information resources by browsing through the bookshelves while some consult library staff for assistance. This was as a result of non availability of library catalogue in most of the libraries studied except U.C.H. Ibadan, Nursing School library.

General comments of the respondents on improving the library revealed that there is need for provision of current and adequate library information resources, subscription to more nursing and relevant medical journals, conducive atmosphere and separate library room for teaching staff. They also indicated the needs for ICT facilities such as Internet, CD-ROM Drives, etc.

On teaching effectiveness, heads of various departments rated the teaching effectiveness of the teachers as very good.

In essence the results of the study revealed that there is significant positive correlation between availability of library resources and teaching effectiveness which means that library information resources availability increases respondents’ use of the library and its resources.

This study found that library information resources mostly available in all the schools of nursing libraries studied were textbooks, nursing journals, dictionaries, handbooks, newspapers/magazines and manuals. This findings on resources availability, corroborates the assertion made by (Lathy and Hodge, 2001) that nurses library information sources includes journals, textbooks, reference materials, manuals, articles and nursing journals.

use is a by-product of availability and accessibility, user tends to use available and accessible resources that meet their information needs, however the results of this study found that available library information resources mostly used by the respondents were textbooks, journals, encyclopedias, dictionaries, newspapers/magazines etc. These resources were highly used with overall mean score (x 2.76). The use of the available library information resources were significantly positively correlated with teaching effectiveness.

Generally, the result clearly shows that teaching effectiveness has significant positive correlation with educational qualification (r = 0.463, P<0.05) availability of library information resources (r = 0.540, P<0.05) accessibility of library information resources (r = 0.602, P<0.05), and use of library information resources (r = 0.706, P<0.05).

In essence, combination of other principles of teaching and learning such as self concepts, knowledge of subject content of subject, readiness, clinical competence, work motivation, participation, evaluation, multiple learning, practice and transfer as suggested by Schwear and Gebbie (1976). Akinyele (1998) and Popoola, (2009) with adequate use of library information resources would increase teaching effectiveness of the respondents.

Conclusion

Nursing educators require quality information resources in order to teach effectively, undertake innovative research, and used their acquired knowledge and experience to provide expert services to the schools in order to turn out professional and qualified nurses who would not be killers in our hospitals. However, the global growth of nursing education information resources in print and electronic formats means that nursing education also need quality information resources that could help them identify, access, and use the required quality information resources. Nursing libraries are expected to provide such resources which when used effectively by nursing educators, would translate into improved teaching effectiveness and quality products.

Use of nursing libraries by the teaching staff in any Schools of Nursing in Osun and Oyo States of Nigeria is essential for adequate knowledge to be acquired. This would not only assist them to have full mastering of their subject of specialization but would also enable them to face the challenges from their colleagues all over the world.

Based on the findings of this study one would, therefore, conclude that for effective use of Schools of Nursling’s Libraries by the teaching staff, there is need for current and adequate library resources, provision of ICT facilities, appreciable level of information literacy amongs the teaching staff, provision of professional librarians to manage to libraries and conducive reading environment. These could be done in collaboration with all stakeholders in nursing education in the States.

A careful attention to all the factors identified above in the Schools of Nursing libraries, the level of library use by the teaching staff will improve, teaching will be more effective and effective teaching will produce quality and qualified nurses for the management of health services.

References

Adam, M. (1993) Students’ Perception of Teacher Effectiveness and their Class Work Examination Performance in Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria. Unpublished M. Ed. Dissertation, University of Maiduguri, 128p.

Adeleke, A.A. (2005) Use of Library Resources by Academic Staff of the Nigerian Polytechnics, Journal of Library Science, 12(2) 15-24.

Agba, D.M., Kigongo-Bukenya, I.M.N. and Nyumba, J.B (2004) Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Academic Staff at Makerere University. University of Dar-es-salam Library Journal, 6(1) 18-28.

Aguolu C.C.. & Aguolu, I.E. (2002. Librarians and information management in Nigeria. Maiduguri: Ed- Linform Services.

Akinyele, D.K. (1999). Principles and practice of management in healthcare services. OAUTHC, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa.

Akinyele, D.K. (1999). Principles and practice of management in health care services. Ilesa OAUTHC, Wesley Guild Hospital.

Apotiade, J.K. (2002). National, state and public libraries. Ibadan: Distance Learning Centre.

Ayoro, A.O. (2004). Serial Availability, accessibility, and utilization: Perceptions of in-training information professionals in a Nigerian university. The Nigeria Link 11(2) April.

Azikiwe, U. (1998). Language teaching and learning. Onitsha: Africana – FEP Publishers Ltd.

Elaturoti, D.F. (1977). The Library as a resources centre, paper presented at the annual conference of Nigerian Library Association held at Kaduna from 29th Nov. to 2nd Dec, 1977.

Fayose O. (1995). School Library Resources Centre for Educational Excellence. Ibadan: AENI Educational Publishers

Fayose O. (2000). Library Resources and their roles in education Ibadan: The centre for External studies, University of Ibadan.

Ismaila, B.A. (1999). The relationship between teachers characteristics and students academic achievement in secondary schools in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Ed Dissertation, University of Maidugori, 152p.

Iyanda D. F., & Salawu A.K. (2006). Library education for higher institutions. Remi Osarayi & Sons Ents. Osogbo.

Kale, A. (2005). The nursing profession in contemporary Nigeria, Kaduna: Muhalid Printers.

Lucas, A.O. (2003). Health research in Nigerian: Is it worth it? Lecture delivered at H.O. Thomas Fellowship Lecture College of Medicine U.C.H., Ibadan.

Mitchell, A., et al. (1995). Assessment of nursing research utilization needs in Ontario health agencies.Canadian Journal of Nursing Administration 195; (8) 77-91.

Neelamegghan, A. (1981). Some issues in information transfer: A third world perspective. IFLA Journal.

Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (2004). Minimum requirements for the establishment of a School of Nursing.

Olowu, K. (2004). Access to information: Myths and reality. Nigerian Librarians 38(1).

Omekwu, C.O. (2004). Networking concepts and cooperation among legislative libraries: Lessons for Nigeria and other developing countries. The Information Technologist.

Oyediran-Tidings, S. (2004). Information needs and seeking behavior of library users:Results from Yaba College of Technology, Lagos. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science 2(2).

Popoola, S.O., & Haliso, Y. (2009). Use of library information resources and services as predator of teaching effectiveness of social scientists in Nigerian universities. AJLAIS 19(1): 65-77.

Royle, J.A., & Blythe, J. (1993). Assessing nurses’ information needs in the work environment. Bulletin of Medical Library Association 81:433-435 (Medline).

Royle J.,A., & Bythe, J. (1997). Do nurses have the information resources and skills for research utilization? Canadian Journal of Nursing Administration 10:9-30 (Medicine).

Schwear J.E., & Gebbie, K. (1976). Creative teaching in clinical nursing. Saint Louis: The C.V. Masby Company.

Ubegu, F.N. (2006). Trends in digital library service in academic libraries in South Africa: library portals and ETD. system. Nigerian Library Association 44th Annual Conference, Abuja.

Uhegbui A.N. (2007). The Information user: Issues and themes. 2nd ed.: Whytem Publishers Nigeria, Okigwe.