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Library Philosophy and Practice 2012

ISSN 1522-0222

Effect of Video on the Teaching of Library Studies among Undergraduates in Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo

J. Ayodeji Akerele
Adeola F. Afolabi

College Library
Adeyemi College Of Education, Ondo

Introduction

Teaching makes acquisition of knowledge and skills possible through systematic interaction between teachers and learners. It happens everyday and involves teacher, learner, methodology and materials interaction. Part of these materials are known as instructional resources.

The use of instructional materials in teaching process provide the basis for improved teaching and learning of a subject. They are designed, produced and use to achieve specific instructional goal. Ayinde (1997) opined that an intelligent use of audio-visual aids will save time and stimulate students’ interest. It increase the retention of knowledge and stimulate understanding and attitude. They help students to recognize a problem. Provide solution and summarize discussion. Moreso, they facilitate independent study, aid communication, create a variety of sensory and makes instruction more powerful and immediate.

Alaku (1998) stated that teachers’ effectiveness depends on his use of appropriate instructional strategies and audiovisual aids. Appropriate instructional strategies portray good teaching techniques and successful learning. They assist students to enjoy and understand lessons easily especially when they are attached with appropriate methodology.

Video is a very important example of instructional materials. Oguntuase (2008) defined it as a record on any medium through which a moving image may by any means be produced. They are derivative works which are usually based on original literacy, dramatic, musical and artistic works.

Teachers are now expected to make use of video for mass media teaching or learning. A good instrument towards achieving this is television which possess seeing and hearing qualities that makes more effective teaching and learning. According to Alaku (1998) video play vital role in teaching and learning. When used effectively, it stimulates interest among the pupils and induces longer retention of factual ideas as the children come into contact with what is being taught.

Kindler (2006) as quoted by Fakunle (2008) declared that people generally remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they hear and see, 70% of what they say and 90% of what they say as they do a thing. Also, National Teacher Institute (2006) stated that Chinese concluded that: I hear; I forget, I see; I remember, I do; I understand. Hence from the illustration above, since video has to do with hearing and seeing it could be suggested that it is a vital tool of learning and teaching.

However, for video to be effective, it must be available, easy to use, well maintained, adequately funded and experts must be available. It is alarming to note that virtually all lecturers or teacher do not make use of instructional materials to deliver lectures. It is in light of this, that this study investigated the effect of video in teaching undergraduates in a college of education.

Objective of the Study

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of video on teaching undergraduates a course (Library Instruction Programme, LIB001) in a college of education.

Statement of the Problem

Video is no doubt a viable tool towards effective learning and teaching. It helps to boost assimilation through good learning techniques and creation of variety of sensory. However, these sterling qualities are being hampered by non availability, user incompetence, poor funding, poor maintenance, etc. Also in the long run, this may affect the students’ assimilation rate and consequently lead to average or poor performance in examinations.

Based on this study investigated the effect of use of video for teaching among undergraduates in a college of education.

Significance of the Study

Planning and development of teaching is the first significance of this study. Fatunmbi (2005) discovered that, there is improvement in teaching process through the use of video. There is every tendency that learners would not forget easily what they learn via video, because they do not only hear it, but they see it. Besides, this work would be very useful to education policy makers since it will expose some problems associated with the use of video and the solutions provided will go a long way to help them in the formulation of policies. Lastly, this work would be another contribution to knowledge and would definitely expand its frontiers. This will lead to research development.

Hypotheses

Ho1: There is no significant relationship effect of video presentation on students’ attitude towards the course (Library Instruction Programme, LIB001)

Ho2: There is no significant means effect of gender on students’ attitude towards the course.

Ho3: There is no significant interaction effect of video and gender on students attitude towards the course.

Research Questions

1) Does the use of video has effect on teaching?

2) Will students who were exposed to video presentation perform better than those who are not, on average?

Literature Review:

Akpabio (2004) viewed video as a potential window that can expose the minds and heart of many to modern practices and environmental concepts, far more than what the traditional classroom teaching can achieve. He stated further that youths and children are so enthralled with home video films that they are described as video crazy. This interest, can be exploited in the formal school system for teaching / learning in vivid and entertaining manner.

Fatunmbi (2005) stated that studies have shown that there is improvement in teaching – learning process through the use of video. According to him, video can be used to provide real experiences in almost all field of learning. It can be made to repeat information and demonstration as many times as possible, thereby, learning is made easier, realistic and concrete for learners. It allows for self instruction. It provide a cheap and fast way of disseminating educational information and practical skills.

Beshnizen and Van Puthen (2000) declared that video can help the teacher to work more closely with the learner and reduce the need for repeated explanation. It has the capacity to motivate learners and difficult skills are better viewed especially with the slow motion. Lastly, the high quality of visual images makes videotape presentation a more realistic package and gives the learners who are experienced TV viewers, familiar ground to work with.

Cuban (2001) expressed that video lectures are feasible through the use of personal computer. They are not recording of classroom lectures but cover lecture material as screen displays of content files with audio narrative are added. They can be produced before a course begins or developed as it progresses.

Dunn (2000) found that video lectures make available instructor – quality lectures that students can view and study as much as needed to meet their individual learning needs. They are detailed step-by-step explanation of materials used in classroom lectures and are presented at a delivery pace that is significantly slower than what can be accomplished in the limited time available in the classroom. They can be paused and repeated and thus can be studied by students at their own learning pace. Additionally, video lectures are more focused learning experiences than the traditional study of a textbook.

Sarker and Nicholson (2005) declared that for video lecture to be effective, they must be accepted and used by students. They must provide an enjoyable or at least satisfactory learning experience, be perceived by students as providing a time-efficient study resource and / or be perceived as improving understanding and grade performance.

Brecht and Ogilby (2008) who worked on video lecture and teaching strategy found that, students who used the video were 73% of the respondents. The high use rate suggests that students broadly accept and use video lectures as a form of computer-based instruction and as an enhancement of traditional classroom courses. Moreover, 31.5% viewed the video in advance of classroom lectures, 72.2% used it to do homework, 72.4% used it to prepare for examination, 63% agreed that video is good for tutoring help and 38.9% believed that it helped to raise their course grade.

Whatley and Ahmad (2007) stated that, for video lectures to be most effectively used by students, they should appeal to their learning style preferences. Video lecture appeals are as follows (a) their content is 100% relevant to course performance requirements and it is presented at a more detailed pace than classroom lectures, (b) videos can be replayed and enable students to repeat the instructor’s explanation (c) they can be viewed at a time, location and under environmental conditions of a student’s choice (d) their portability enables listening and study without the competing distractions that often accompany classroom lecture.

Isiaka (2007) who researched on the effectiveness of video as a media found that video group performed better than the group without instructional media. The video group did significantly better than the chart group. He concluded that video was an effective medium for teaching / learning in schools.

Deveaney (2009) discovered that all his respondents were favourable to video tutorial. 75% reported that the tutorials were enjoyable and interesting, 84.6% indicated that, it met their needs, 100% reported that hey were straight forward and easy to understand, 92.4% agreed that the length of the tutorial were appropriate and 90.8% believed that viewing gave them better understanding than textbooks and guide sheets. He concluded that video is a viable tutorial tool for online courses.

Methodology:

Research Design:

This study employed pretest-post test control group experimental design.

Population of the Study:

This comprised of the undergraduate students (100 level) of the Department of History, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo.

Sampling Method:

There are 172 students in the Departments. 172 wraps were put in a bowl. 100 contain “yes” while the rest contain “no”. Students were asked to pick one after the other. Those that picked “yes” were sampled for this research. They were subsequently divided into 2 groups. The first was to serve as experimental group and the second was the control group.

Variables in the Study:

The dependent variable was the effective teaching of undergraduates while the independent variables were the treatments, i.e. the video presentation and the conventional teaching method.

Research Instrument:

The instrument used to gather data was Effect of Video on Teaching Scale, (EVTS). Section A elicited information on demographic variable such as sex, age, department. Section B consisted of 25 items on a four – point Likert-types scale. The points are Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD).

Also, at the end of the classes, the Cumulative Assessment of the respondents were compiled, to investigate if there is significant difference in performances.

Validation and Reliability:

Factor analytic method was used to validate the questionnaire and was found to be factorially pure. Also crobach alpha value of 0.72 was established. Therefore, the questionnaire was not only reliable but valid.

General Procedure:

Due to the nature of this work, the period of investigation was divided into 4 phases or stages:

i. Pre-Treatment Phase: Here, EVTS was administered on all the 100 respondents and scored as pretest, before exposing the 2 groups to treatment.

ii. Treatment Phase: This phase lasted for four weeks. During this period, both the experimental and the control groups were exposed to lectures on Library Instruction Programme (LIB 001). The experimental group was instructed using videotape presentation only and the control group was instructed using the conventional method of teaching.

iii. Post – Treatment Phase: After the treatment, EVTS was administered again and scored as post-test on both the experimental and control groups.

iv. Continuous Assessment Phase: Test and assignments were conducted to evaluate the students.

Data Analysis:

The 3 hypotheses were tested using means scores, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)

Results:

Table 1: Summary of ANCOVA of the Effect of Treatment and Gender on the Students Attitudes Towards Library Instruction Programme

Hierarchical Method

F

Sign P

Sum of square

DF

Means Square

PSTATT. Pretest (Covariate)

1,321.426

1

1321.426

142.521

.000

Main effects (combined)

1129.532

2

564.766

8.123

.000

Treatment

1097.768

1

1097.768

15.217

.000*

Sex *

2.941

1

2.941

0.041

.642

2-way interaction treatment

Sex

22.290

1

22.290

0.210

.539

Model

13839.124

4

3459.781

44.493

.000

Residual

1658.885

95

17.4619

Total

19071.966

99

192.6461

* Significant at P<0.05

Table 2: Multiple Classification Analysis Table of Respondents. (Grand Mean = 62.99)

Predicated

Deviation

N

Unadjusted

Adjusted for factor and covariate

Eta

Unadjusted

Adjusted for factor and covariate

Beta

POSTACHV

Treatment experimental

50

10.62

7.3311

10.62

7.3311

Control

50

-10.62

7.3311

0.655

-10.62

-10.62

-7.3311

Male

57

Female

43

1.4216

0.2151

0.061

1.4216

0.2151

0.011

Multiple R

0.722

Multiple R2

0.594

Discussion:

From table 1, it could be deducted that treatment contributed significantly to the variation in the students’ attitudes towards the courses; Library Instruction Programme, LIB 001. [F(1,99) = 15.217; P<0.05]. Based on this finding hypothesis 1 was rejected.

Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used to determine the performance of the two groups as shown in table 2. The Grand Mean was 62.99. Analysis from the table reflected that students in the experimental group had a higher adjusted mean score of (62.99 + 7.3311) = 70.3211 than that of the control group which was (62.99 – 7.3311) = 55.6589. This was positively influenced by the video production and in line with the findings of Isiaka (2007) who found that use of median boost students’ performance.

Table 1 showed that there was no significant effect of gender on student’s attitude towards the course. [F(1,99) = 0.041; P<0.05]. Therefore hypothesis 2 was accepted. Table 1 also showed that there was no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on students’ attitudes towards the course [F(1,99) = 0.210; P<0.05]. Therefore hypothesis 3 was accepted.

The finding of this study showed that attitudes of learners towards the course; Library Instruction Programme, (LIB 001), were altered based on the teaching method they were exposed to. Gender did not contribute significantly to the variation in students’ attitude.

Conclusion:

From the findings of this study, it was concluded that when video is used in teaching, it enhances learners’ positive attitude towards the course. Also it affects their performances positively.

Recommendation:

Having studies indeptly the effect of video on teaching, the following are the recommendations:

- Every teaching / learning activities should always be supplemented with media such as video.

- Teachers must have good training on the use of media.

- Students favourite media must be investigated and used to teach them.

- Government must create more awareness through seminar / workshop on the use of media.


REFERENCES

Akpabio, E. (2004) Nigerian Home Video Films as a Catalyst for Nigerian Development, Journal of Sustainable Development 1(1), 5-10.

Alaku, P.O. (1998) Instructional Strategies and Audio-Visual Aids for Teachers Effectiveness, Bichi Journal of Education 2(1), 114-117.

Ayinde, A.T. (1999) Resources for Effective Teaching and Learning of Agricultural Science, Bichi Journal of Education and Planning 1(1), 6-8.

Beshnizen, M and Van Puthen (2000) The Use of Video-Tape Broadcast and Interactive Teaching, British Journal of Edu Tech 21(2) 40-44.

Brecht, H.D. et al (2008) Enabling Comprehensive Teaching Strategy: Video Lectures, Journal of Info Tech, Edu, Vol. 7, 1-10, www.informingscience.org/jite/vol7/jite/Vol.7,2/6/10.

Cuban, L. (2001) Computers in the Classroom, Cambridge, M.A. Harvard University Press.

Devaney, T.A. (2009) Impact of Video Tutorial in an Online Educational Statistics Course, Journal of Learning and Teaching, 5(4), 22-26.

Dunn, R. (2000) Capitalizing on College Students’ Learning Style: Theory, Practice and Research, Westport, CT Praeger.

Fakunle, I. (2008) Enhancing the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics through Effective Utilization of Instructional Materials, Journal of Teacher Education 9(1) 102-111.

Fatunmbi, O.O. (2005) Effect of Video Tape Presentation on Senior Secondary School Students Attitudes Towards Physical Education, Journal of Teacher Education 8(1), 56-64.

Isiaka, B. (2007) Effectiveness of Video an Instructional Medium in Teaching Rural Children Agricultural and Environment Sciences, International Journal of Education and Development 3(3) 105-114 www.ijedict.dec.uwiedu/include/getdocomphp?id.

National Teacher Institute (2006) Improvisation of Instructional Materials, Manual, Kaduna, NTI.

Oguntuase, F.Z. (2008) Implication of Copyright Provision for Literacy Work in Films and Video for Libraries, Nigeria School Library Journal, Vol. 7, 87-99.

Sarker, S and Nicholson, J. (2005) Exploring the Myths about Online Education in Information Systems, IJET 8, 55-73 www.informnu/Articles/vol18/v8p055-073sarkerpdf.

Whatley, J. and Ahmad, A. (2007) Using Video to Record Summary Lectures to Aid Students’ Revision Interdisciplinary www.ijello.org/volume3/1JKLOV1p185-196whately367pdf.