Library Philosophy and Practice 2011
Corruption Eradication in Nigeria: An Appraisal
Some of the things that cause poverty in Nigeria are the Nigerian ruling and
business elite. The ruling elite lack the kind of
philosophical and ideological vision and orientation that is committed
to developing "a dream society." They have no dream beyond the
satisfaction of desires. This paper examines the nature
of corruption in Nigeria.
Corruption is a social problem that has interested many scholars. Ruzindana (1999) asserts that corruption in Africa is a problem of routine deviation from established standards and norms by public officials and parties with whom they interact. He also identifisd the types of corruption in Africa as bribery, private gain, and other benefits to non-existent workers and pensioners (called ghost workers). The dishonest and illegal behavior exhibited especially by people in authority for their personal gain is corruption. According to the ICPC Act (section 2), corruption includes vices like bribery, fraud, and other related offences. Corruption is the abuse or misuse of power or position of trust for personal or group benefit (monetary or otherwise).
Corruption is a symptom of numerous difficulties within contemporary societies. It usually involves more than one party. It takes a form of an organized crime. At times, an organization can be established on corruption to beget corruption. Gbenga (2008) asserts that corruption is contagious. According to thfe perception index of Transparency International, Nigeria was ranked 144th out of the 146 countries, beating Bangladesh and Haiti to last position. An analysis of the anti-graft/anti-corruption laws in Nigeria shows that corruption will continue in spite of the laws because the perpetrators do not fear any consequences. It is now dawning on the Nigerian public that the so-called private enterprise and legislators are free from scrutiny, and governors claim to be immune. Corruption is found in the award of contracts, promotion of staff, dispensation of justice, and misuse of public offices, positions, and privileges, embezzlement of public funds, public books, publications, documents, valuable security, and accounts. Corruption can be systematic in nature and affect the whole life of an organization or society.
Corruption in Nigeria
John Locke outlined the doctrine of the separation of powers, indicating the danger of oppressive and arbitrary rule when all functions of government are exercised by a single person or institution. The growing corruption in Nigeria can be traced to people holding power at the federal, state, and local government levels. Corruption does not involve just people in government, but also to people in both private and public positions and even traditional rulers .
President Olusegun Obasanjo presented a bill to the national assembly on “the prohibition and punishment of bribery, corruption, and other related offences bill of 1999”. Obasanjo's regime has certainly fired the most critical shot at corruption in Nigeria in recent times. At the federal level, it cannot be business as usual in Nigeria. Corruption has also spread to both the state and local government levels, as well as some decentralized centers of power and authority.
Thomson (2004) reports on the then National Electric Power Authority (NEPA):
There were powerful views on the problems of corruption. ... You need tip them to get them to rectify a problem, said one, while some people in the focus group thought transformer were being vandalized by NEPA officials to warrant either replacement or repair of the transformer.
the educational sector in Nigeria, especially from secondary to
university levels, corruption is very pervasive, and most of which is
not in the public eye. Corruption in education includes:
Corrupt Practices by Parents of Students
Parents are known to have used unorthodox
means to influence their children's or wards' admission to federal
government secondary schools, commonly referred to as unity schools. A
high JAMB score is critical for admission in to the
university in Nigeria, and this has led to cheating by some students
and parents. There are expensive coaching centers that charge
fees to guarantee a minimum score of 300 in the JAMB score, which
is been orchestrated by coaching centers
through aiding and abetting cheating in the JAMB examination with
connivance of JAMB officials.
Corrupt Practices by Lecturers
Within the university system, some students resort to "sorting" (finding ways of purchasing of high and unmerited mark from a lecturer in order to enhance the grade in their final examination.) Such students will then say they have gone into the university and having what they not work for. Lecturers and students print fake receipts, which they use in collecting school fees, and some unsuspecting students are usually discovered by the audit department.
Corrupt Practice by PoliceIt has been alleged that some unscruplous officers rent firearms to criminals who use them to harass the public and engage in highway robberies. The police are also alleged to be collecting an unauthorized fee before granting bail to anyone who is arrested. Some police in traffic control collect a graduated illegal charge on all operators of inter- and intra-city. Some tax officials are alleged to be using two types of receipts to collect revenue. Once receipt is the original, and hence genuine, while the second is usually a false one for the collector.s private use, thus depriving government of its legitimate revenue (Bello Iman 2005)
Causes of Corruption in Nigeria
unchecked, unbridled, and
uncontrolled, power, humans become corrupt. According to Thomas
becomes solitary, nasty, brutish, and short." Our previous colonial
background has been identified by scholars. Our colonial heritage
has altered our values and perception of morality; some of
the causes of corruption are:
Effect of Corruption on Nation-Building
Many have noted the effects of corruption on nation-building.
Development scholars observe this effect. Corruption has an adverse
effect on social and economic development and also in building a
nation. The effects include:
Role of Law Enforcement in Combating Corruption
Before President Olusegun Obasanjo's regime, the police and
some related agencies were the only ones fighting corruption. When
Obasanjo became president in 1999, the Economic Financial Crime
Commission (EFCC) and
the Independent Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences (ICPC)
in place, they have dealt seriously with the pandemic situation. The
EFCC and ICPC have a number of roles in fighting corruption in
Nigeria. The ICPC is not subject to the
direction or control of any person or authority. The EFCC collaborates with international and local
In order to prevent corruption from
happening at all, Nigerian should emphasis transparency, integrity, and
accountability in all their private and public transaction. There
Achanism Model is named for Achan who appears in the Old Testament of
the Bible. Achan in the scripture was
avaricious (Joshua 7). He was caught and his
entire family was severely dealt with. His children, who might
have expected to inherit the proceeds of his illegal act were not
allowed to do so. The solution is as follows:
Corruption in Nigeria is systematic, and to address the problem a systematic approach is needed. To curb and eventually eradicate corruption, children, youth, and adults must be given the power to distinguish right from wrong. All schools should return to the teaching of moral education to empower children with the spirit of stewardship, while adults live exemplary lives, reflecting truth, kindness, dignity of labour, and integrity. Permit me to conclude with this popular Yoruba moral song on corruption.
1. Kini ni no fole se laye timo wa (2x)
I.B. Bello-Imam (2005).The war against corruption in Nigeria: Prospects and problems.
The Guardian Newspaper. "EFCC; ICPC, record average performance, says poll. April 7 page 13
Olusegun Obasanjo (1990). Inaugural Address, "Was a new dawn delivered on May 29."
Hassan A. Saliu, Ayodele, et al. (2006). The National Question and Some Selected Topics and Issues in Nigeria.
Lai Olurode, et al. Poverty, corruption, social policy and social development.
Haralambous and Horbon (2004). Themes and Perspectives in Sociology. 6th
Dr (Mrs.); E.A Ogunsanya; (2006). A paper presented on social implication of graft in Nigeria polity Christian, Muslim, and traditional belief (practical orientation)
Isaac A. Olomolaiye ;( 2006). Application of anti-graft act to the private sector: Implication for management and ethics.
Ajayi, Vincent (2006). Sociology of bribery and corruption in Nigerian society