http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/

Library Philosophy and Practice 2011

ISSN 1522-0222

 

Citation Analysis of Dissertations of Law submitted to University of Delhi, Delhi

Dr.Joginder Singh Burman

Asstt.Professor.

Deptt.of Lib. & Inf. Sc.

K.U. Kurukshetra-136119

Haryana (INDIA)

&

Sheela, M.Phil.Student

DLISc.KUK.

 

Abstract

A total 3052 citations were analyzed appended from 33 dissertations submitted by LLM students of University of Delhi, Delhi in 2006.It was found that 25.52% citations were from the journal articles and EPW with 7.19% citations was the most used journal.69.78% citations were from the subject of Law and 79.84% contributions were produced under single author-ship.41% periodicals were cited from USA.Half-life of periodical literature was 11 years.

 

0.  Introduction

In ancient period, there was lack of mode of communication. The source of extensive of ideas was assembly. When judges write opinions, they perpetually cite cases and other authorities. Lawyers, legal scholars and judges all pepper their writings with links to earlier sources.Citations within court decision are nothing but arguments themselves and shows the decision of case. Analysis of the citations employed by Legal writers offers similar promise as a tool for exploration of legal thought. (Widdison, 2002). Yet, Bibliometrics, Citation Indexing, Citation Analysis all appear to have been practiced in the legal field long before they were introduced into scientific literature. Therefore, when two Judges who are deciding different cases, cite some of the same authorities, this does mean that those cases are, at least somehow, relevant to each other (Smith, 2007).

Citation Analysis is the applied research method by librarians, teachers and information scientist to indicate the relationship that exist between cited and citing document. Martyn (1975) says, “a Citation implies the relationship between a part or whole of the cited document or the whole of the citing documents.Thus, Citation analysis is useful for understanding subject relationships, authors effectiveness, publication trends and so on. It looks at citations to and from documents. If, there is a citation between two documents, there is some kind of relationship between these texts. This relationship can be further explored and used to learn more about the characteristics of the connected documents. (Feather and Sturges,2003).The present study focused at deriving qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the citations collected from the end of the dissertations submitted in 2006 by the students of LLM,University of Delhi, Delhi.

2. Objectives:  The study intends to identify the following objectives:-

1.      Form-wise distribution of documents cited by LLM Students.

2.      Ranking List of the Journals.

3.      Author-ship Pattern in citations.

4.      Country-wise distribution of the journals.

5.      Subject-wise distribution of the journals.

6.      Year-wise distribution of Periodical literature.

3.      Methodology: A total 3052 citations have been collected from Thirty Three dissertations available in the Campus Law Centre Library, University of Delhi, Delhi. The citations appended to each dissertation under the study were collected using a predefined 5” x 3” slips.

4.                              Data Analysis and Interpretation

Data collected from the source dissertations have been classified, tabulated and analyzed in accordance with the set objectives of the study. Only data belonging to the periodicals have been analyzed in depth.            

Table –1.    Form-wise distribution of the documents

Sr.No.

 

Forms of Documents

No. of Citations

%age

Cumulative

No. of Citations

%age

1

Journals

779

 

25.52

779

 

25.52

2

Text Books

678

 

22.21

1457

 

47.73

3

Constitutions/Statutes/Acts

499

 

16.34

1956

 

64.08

4

Reports

283

 

9.27

2239

 

73.36

5

Web-sites

257

 

8.42

2496

 

81.78

6

Reviews

245

 

8.02

2741

 

89.81

7

Conventions/Conferences

186

 

6.09

2927

 

95.90

8

Reference Books

67

 

2.19

2994

 

98.1

9

Newspapers

27

 

0.88

3021

 

98.98

10

Magazines

16

 

0.52

3027

 

99.50

11

Not identified

15

 

0.49

3052

100

 

Total

3052

100

100

100

 

Table-1 shows  that out of 3052 total citations , 779 (25.52%) documents were in the form of Journal articles followed by Books i.e. 678 (22.21%) with a slightly difference. It is clearly revealed that around 50% information needs of LLM students  are met by periodicals and books only. Constitutions /Statutes / Acts comes at the third with 499 (16.34%) citations followed by Reports, Web-sites, Reviews and Conventions / Conferences documents accounts to 9.27%, 8.42%, 8.02% and 6.09% respectively.15 publictions could not be identified as they were not expressed properly. The rest documents has been given in the Fig. 1.

Fig.-1

Table-2. Rank List of Journals

Sr.

No.

Journal Title

Ranks

No. of Citations

%age

Cumulative

No. of

Citations

 

%age

1

Economic Political Weekly

1

56

7.19

56

7.19

2

American Journal of International Law

2

44

5.65

100

12.84

3

CBI Bulletin

3

35

4.24

133

17.07

4

Delhi Law review

4

29

3.72

162

20.80

5

Indian Journal of International Law

5

22

2.82

184

23.62

6

Journal of Indian Law Institute

5

22

2.82

206

26.44

7

Indian Bar Review

6

21

2.70

227

26.57

8

Journal of International Economic Law

7

17

2.18

244

31.32

9

Journal of World Trade

7

17

2.18

261

33.50

10

International Comparative Law Quarterly

7

17

2.18

278

35.69

11

Supreme Court Cases

7

17

2.18

295

37.87

12

Journal of Intellectual Property Right

7

17

2.18

312

40.05

13

National Capital Law Journal

8

16

2.05

328

42.11

14

All India Report

8

16

2.05

344

44.16

15

European Journal of International Law

8

16

2.05

360

46.21

16

Criminal Law Journal

9

15

1.93

375

48.14

17

Harvard International Law Journal

9

15

1.93

390

50.06

18

Indian Journal of Public Administration

9

15

1.93

405

51.99

19

Centre India Law Quarterly

9

15

1.93

420

53.92

20

Indian Socio-Legal Journal

10

9

1.16

429

55.07

21

International Migration Review

10

9

1.16

438

56.23

22

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

10

9

1.16

447

57.38

23

Supreme Court Yearly Digest

10

9

1.16

456

58.54

24

American Political Science Review

11

8

1.03

464

59.56

25

Cochin University Law Review

11

8

1.03

472

60.59

26

Journal of World Intellectual Property

11

8

1.03

480

61.62

27

Fordham International Law Journal

11

8

1.03

488

62.64

28

Denver Journal of International Law and Policy

11

8

1.03

496

63.67

29

Labor Law Reporter

11

8

1.03

504

64.70

30

Virginia Journal of International Law

12

7

0.90

511

65.60

31

Company Law Journal

12

7

0.90

518

66.50

32

Chicago Journal of International Law

12

7

0.90

525

67.39

33

Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law

12

7

0.90

532

68.29

34

Indian Police Journal

12

7

0.90

539

69.19

35

Annual Survey of Indian Law

12

7

0.90

546

70.09

36

Journal of International Arbitration

13

6

0.77

552

70.86

37

Kashmir University Law Review

13

6

0.77

558

71.63

38

Murdoch University Electronic Journal Law

13

6

0.77

564

72.40

39

Maharishi Dayanand University of Law Journal

13

6

0.77

570

73.17

40

European Intellectual Property Law Review

13

6

0.77

576

73.94

41

Supreme Court Journal

13

6

0.77

582

74.71

42

Labour and Industrial Cases

14

5

0.64

587

75.35

43

World Intellectual Property Journal

14

5

0.64

592

75.99

44

Allahabad Weekly Report Bulletin

14

5

0.64

597

76.64

45

Andhra Law Times

14

5

0.64

602

77.28

46

All India High Court Cases

14

5

0.64

607

77.92

47

Amity Law Review

14

5

0.64

612

78.56

48

Academic Law Review

14

5

0.64

617

79.20

49

Bangalore Law Journal

14

5

0.64

622

79.85

50

Africa Law Journal

14

5

0.64

627

80.49

51

Canadian Bar Review

14

5

0.64

632

81.13

52

Cornell  International Law Journal

14

5

0.64

637

81.77

 

Remaining 87 titles cited less than 5 times i.e.1=42, 2 =64, 3=36, 4=0

 

142

18.22

779

100%

 

A total of 52 Journals have been identified in Tabel-2 in the field of Law. For each Journal title listed in the ranked list rank number, numbers of citations, cumulating percentage, etc. are given. These Journals are ranked in the ascending order based on the number of citations. It shows that the literature used by the researchers in the field of Law has been scattered in 52 core Journals with 637 (81.77%) citations and remaining 87 Journals account for 142 (18.22%) citations have been cited less than 5 times. It was observed that Economic Political Weekly (EPW) ranked at the top having 56(7.19%) citations followed by American Journal of International Law with 44 (5.65%) citations of the total. More than half of the total citations i.e. 390(50.06%) covers first 17 core Journals. This rank list will be useful to the librarian as well as the researcher in ascertaining the most important journals in the field of Law.

Table 3. Author-ship Pattern

Sr. No.

 

No. of Authors

No. of Citations

%age

Cumulative

No. of Citations

%age

1

Single Author

622

79.84

622

79.84

2

Two Authors

127

16.30

749

96.14

3

Three Authors

17

2.18

766

98.33

4

Four Authors

8

1.02

774

99.35

5

More than Four Authors

5

0.64

779

100%

 

Total

779

100%

779

100%

 

Fig. 2

Table 3 indicates the authorship pattern reflected in periodical articles. It was observed that single author articles contributed 622 (79.84%) citations in the field of  Law followed by two and three authors contributions with 127 (16.30%) and 17 (2.18%) respectively. The remaining 05(0.64%) articles were contributed by more than four authors.

 

 

 

Table 4. Country-wise distribution of periodicals

Sr. No.

Country-wise

distribution

No. of Periodicals

%age

Cumulative

No. of Periodicals

%age

1.

USA

57

41.00

57

41.00

2.

India

52

37.41

109

78.41

3.

UK

17

12.23

126

90.65

4

Australia

03

2.15

129

92.80

5

New-York

03

2.15

132

94.95

6

Russia

02

1.43

134

96.40

7

Africa

02

1.43

136

97.85

8

Canada

01

0.71

137

98.56

9

France

01

0.71

138

99.27

10

East Timor

01

0.71

139

100%

 

Total

139

100%

139

100%

 

Fig. 3

Table-4 tells that the research scholars of law have cited the periodical from 10 countries in their research. Majority of the cited periodicals belongs to the three countries and out of these USA is at the top with 57(41%) periodicals followed by India with 52 (37.41%) and UK with 17(12.23%) periodical. Less than 10% periodicals were from other seven countries. This revealed that LLM students of University of Delhi, Delhi do not use only Indian periodicals but foreign periodicals also to a larger extent.

Table 5. Subject-wise distribution of Periodicals

Sr.

No.

Subject

No. of Periodicals

%age

Cumulative

Citations

%age

1

Law

97

69.8

97

69.8

2

Science  and Technology

15

10.8

112

80.6

3

Social Science

13

9.35

125

89.95

4

Economic

11

8.00

136

97.85

5

Education

3

2.15

139

100%

 

Total

139

100

779

100%

 

 

 

Fig. 4

Table 5 shows that 97 (69.78%) periodical cited by LLM students are from their own field i.e. Law followed by Science and Technology with 15(10.79%). They also cited periodicals from the field of Social Science, Economics and Education with 13 (9.35%), 11 (7.9%) and 3(2.15%) each respectively.

Table 6. Year-wise distribution of the periodical literature

Sr.No.

 

Period Intervals
(in years)

No. of Citations

%age

Cumulative

No. of Citations

%age

1

0-5

245

 

31.45

245

 

31.45

2

06-10

133

 

17.07

378

 

48.52

3

11-20

113

 

14.50

491

 

63.02

4

21-30

99

12.70

590

 

75.73

5

31-40

85

 

10.91

675

 

86.64

6

41-50

56

 

7.18

731

 

93.83

7

51-60

21

 

2.69

752

 

96.53

8

61 and earlier

27

 

3.46

779

 

100

 

 

Year-wise distribution of cited periodical literature reveals that about 31.45% papers were cited within 5 years of their publication and more than 75.73% of the papers were cited within 20 years. However, the oldest cited paper was published more than 80 years back. For calculating the half-life of law literature depicted by the current study, a graph was plotted by taking period on x-axis and the cumulative number of citations of the periodical literature on y-axis. The total number of citations measured at y-axis was 779. Half of the total citations i.e. 390(considering each citation as an indivisible unit) meet at point ‘A’ parallel on y-axis. A line drawn from point ‘A’ parallel to x-axis cuts the curved graph at point ‘B’ parallel to y-axis meets the x-axis at point ‘C’. Again another line was drawn from point ‘B’.Distance from point ‘A’ to ‘B’ or ‘O’ to ‘C’ is the half life of periodical literature in field of law which was 11 years. Fig. 5 shows obsolescence of periodical literature.

 

5.         CONCLUSION AND FINDINGS

Citation analysis is useful for understanding subject relationships, author effectiveness, publication trends and so on. It is essential for a librarian to identify the information needs and use pattern of the users. The following are some important findings of the study:-

  1. Journals articles were the major source of information used by LLM students as 1/3 of the total citations were from journal articles i.e. 779 (25.52%) followed by books 678 (22.21%) with a slightly difference.
  2. Indian Journal titled Economic Political Weekly (EPW) with 56(7.19%) citations was the most used journal.
  3. 97(69.78%) periodicals were from their own subject i.e. Law.
  4. 622 (79.84%) citations were produced under single authorship.
  5. A large number of total cited periodical were from U.S.A with 57(41%) citations.
  6. The half-life of periodical literature in the field of Law was 11 years.

 

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