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Library Philosophy and Practice 2008

ISSN 1522-0222

A Survey of Collection Development Practices in Technical Institutes in Ghaziabad, Utter Pradesh, India

Krishna Kumar
Central Library,Ch. Charan Singh University
Meerut, Utter Pradesh, India

Akhtar Hussain
Research Scholar, Department of Library & Information Science
A.M.U., Aligarh-202002, Utter Pradesh, India

Neetu Singh
Former Student of Department of Library & Information Science
Central Library, Ch. Charan Singh University
Meerut, Utter Pradesh, India

 

Introduction

This study is a survey of technical institute libraries in Ghaziabad, Utter Pradesh, India. A list of the libraries in the population is found inAppendix 1. The survey sought to determine the nature of the collection, tools that are used to access it, funds allocated, and the characteristics of the user population. Technical institutes generally offer courses and degrees in engineering, technology, management, and related fields.

Library and information science (LIS) has no rigorous definition of "collection," which represents many different entities that are often seen from a library management perspective. Since collections have been associated with the physical library, it is uncertain how the concept of a collection means in the virtual world. The purpose of this study is to explore what constitutes a collection in the current environment, where information is increasingly made available digitally.

Collection development includes activities such as assessing user needs, evaluating the present collection, determining selection policies, coordinating selection, re-evaluating and storing parts of the collection, and planning for resource sharing. Thus, collection development is not a single activity but a group of activities. Acquisitions is usually distinguished from collection development, and refers do the process of verifying, ordering, and making payments for materials. There has been a general belief that there is a positive correlation between the collection size and its performance in terms of patron satisfaction. If a library ceased adding fresh material to its collection, it would soon have a negative effect on the library's services. A collection development policy is essential for a balanced and robust collection. It specifies the scope of the collection, authority for selection, criteria for allocation of funds and for selection of various types of materials, priorities in selection, and criteria for weeding.

Objectives of the Study:

  • To determine the purposes for which the collection is used by the library professional/staff of technical institutes in Ghaziabad District.

  • To identify the availability of collections in technical institute libraries
  • To reveal the present status of print, non-print, and e-resources in the libraries under study.

  • To discover the strength and weakness of the collection of the libraries under study.

  • To examine and evaluate collection development policies of the technical institute libraries, looking at fund allocation

  • To examine user satisfaction with the collection and services of technical institute libraries.

  • To discover the availability of staff training facilities in technical institute libraries.
  • To identify usable software and ways of using it.
  • To identify library software packages that can handle collection building.
  • To identify hardware is used for collection building.
  • To discover cataloging methods used in technical institute libraries.

Methodology

Data were gathered using a survey and then organized and tabulated. Twenty questionnaires were distributed and fifteen were returned.

Literature Review

The literature of collection development is vast. General treatments of academic library collection development include Gessesse (2000), Nisonger (1999), Rowley and Black (1996), Seth, Ramesh, and Sahu (1997), Susana, Vignau, and Meneses (2005), Taylor (1999), and Wessels (1995). Explorations of particular countries and case studies of individual libraries include Andrada and Vergueiro (1996), Maharana, Choudhury, and Dutta (2004), and Sinha and Tucker (2005). Digital collections are of particular interest. Authors who discuss this topic include Arlitch and Johnson (2005), Cole and Shreeves (2004), Kiondo (2004), Leung (2005), Nikolaidou et al. (2005), and Ashoor (2005). Tools such as metadata systems and software are pertinent to collection development. Works on those topics include Bekaert, et al. (2002), Calanag, Tabata, and Suginoto (2004), and Mutula and Makondo (2003).

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Table 1: Collections
Collection Number of Respondents Percentage
Foreign   Nil
Indian   Nil
Both 15 100%

Collections were classified into three categories. Table 1 shows that the 15 (100%) respondents use both type Indian and Foreign collections.

Table 2. Language of the Collection
Language Number of Respondents Percentages
Hindi 9 16.67%
English 14 93.33%
Urdu/Sanskrit × Nil
Others 1 6.66%

Table 2 shows that the majority of institutes under study (93.33%) have collections mainly in English, followed by Hindi (16.67%). Other languages represent a very small percentage (6.66%), and Urdu/Sanskrit are not represented at all.

LANGUAGE OF THE COLLECTION


Table 3: Document Collection (SeeAppendix 1 for Institute names and abbreviations)
Name of the Institute Book Thesis/ Dissertation Indian Foreign Bound Volumes Audio visual aids
Dr. K.N. Modi 24,500(6.55%) × 42 (5.22%) 12 (1.12%) 94(6.66%) ×
K.I.E.T. 31,000(8.29%) × 130(16.16%) 85(79.43%) 750(53.11%) 150(2.23%)
A.K.G.I.E.T. 18088(4.84%) 817(13.85%) 47(5.84%) 20(1.86%) 176(12.48%) 507(7.56%)
U.I.M.T. 8,336(2.23%) 1000(16.96%) 50(6.21%) ×Nil × 130(1.99%)
B.B.I.T. 13,600(3.64%) 50(0.84%) 95(11.81%) 35(3.27%) × 250(3.73%)
I.P.E.M. 15,000(4.81%) 2500(42.40%) 25(3.10%) 30(2.80%) × 2500(37.30%)
V.I.E.T. 15850(4.24%) 518(8.78%) 47(5. 84%) 18(1.68%) 155(10.99%) 180(2.68%)
I.N.M.A.N.T.C. 15,000(4.01%) 450(7.63%) 103(12.81%) 12(1.12%) 6(0.42%) 536(7.99%)
A.B.E.S. 22,000 (5.88%) 305(5.17%) 52(6.46%) 12(1.12%) 20(1.48%) 148(2.20%)
K.N.G.D. 8,000(2.14%) × ­10(1.24%) 2(0.18%) × ×
S.R.M. 12,500(33.46%) 100(1.69%) 57(7.08%) 9(0.84%) 13.8(9.78%) 1050(15.66%)
H.R.I.T. 9000(2.40%) × 36(4.47%) 30(2.80%) × ×
I.M.R. 9000(2.40%) 100(1.69%) 58(7.21%) 17(1.58%) × 850(4.14%)
R.K.G.I.E.T. 39,158(10.48%) × 10(1.24%) × Nil 50(3.54%) 278(4.14%)
I.M.S. 20,000(5.35%) 56(0.94%) 42(5.22%) 23(2.14%) 21(1.48%) 123(1.83)
Total 373532 5896 84 1070 1410 6702

Taken together, the institutes in the study have 373,532 books, nearly 6,000 Thesis/Dissertation, about 1,000 periodicals, 1,410 bound volumes, and 6,702 non-book items. S.R.M. has the largest collection, followed by R.K.G.I.E.T., and K.I.E.T.

Document Collection
Table 4: Library Users and Faculty Members
Name of the Institute Number of faculty Member Number of the Research Scholar Number of P.G. Student Number of U.G. Student
Dr. K.N. Modi 90(5.64%) × 220(6.17%) 1200(8.67%)
K.I.E.T. 150(9.41%) × 400(11.23%) 1600(11.56%)
A.K.G.I.E.T. 507(31.82%) × 128(3.59%) 1532(11.07%)
U.I.M.T. 10(0.62%) × 62(1.74%) 200(1.44%)
B.B.I.T. 80(5.02%) × 100(2.80%) 1020(7.37%)
I.P.E.M. 40(2.51%) 04(13.33%) 800(22.46%) 700(5.06%)
V.I.E.T. 75(4.70%) 05(16.60%) 150(4.21%) 1000(7.22%)
I.N.M.A.N.T.C. 49(3.07%) × 250(7.02%) 300(2.16%)
A.B.E.S. 145(9.10%) 05(16.60%) 240(6.73%) 1700(12.29%)
K.N.G.D. 21(1.31%) × × 240(1.73%)
S.R.M. 40(2.51%) × 100(2.80%) 300(2.16%)
H.R.I.T. 35(2.19%) × × 240(1.73%)
I.M.R. 30(1.88%) × 600(16.84%) 600(4.33%)
R.K.G.I.E.T. 100(6.27%) 10(33.33%) 251(7.04%) 1600(11.56%)
I.M.S. 121(7.59%) 6(20%) 260(7.30%) 1600(11.56%)
Total 1593 30 3561 13832

Table-4 focuses that the library users and faculty members. The total number of faculty members are 1,593. A.K.G.I.E.T. has the most faculty, with 507 (31.82%), followed by K.I.E.T. at 150 (9.41%).

Library Users and Faculty Members


Table 5: Budget
Name of the Institute Applied science Engineering Pure Science Others Total Budget
Dr. K.N. Modi × 8Lac(16.60%) × × 8 Lac
K.I.E.T. × × × × No fixed budget
A.K.G.I.E.T. 2 Lac (50%) 11 Lac (22.83%) 2 Lac(50%) 1 Lac(6.45%) 16 Lac (16.08%)
U.I.M.T. × × × × 2 Lac (2.01%)
B.B.I.T. × × × × No response
I.P.E.M. × × × × No collection budget
V.I.E.T. × 11 Lac (22.83%) × 6 Lac(38.70%) 17 Lac(17.08%)
I.N.M.A.N.T.C. × × × × ×
A.B.E.S. 1 Lac(25%) 6 Lac(12.45%) × 3 Lac(19.35%) 10 Lac (10.05%)
K.N.G.D. × × × × 10 Lac (10.05%)
S.R.M. × 6 Lac (12.45%) 2 Lac(50%) 2 Lac(12.90%) Four Lac (4.02%)
H.R.I.T. × × × × No response
I.M.R. × × × × 5,00,000
R.K.G.I.E.T. × 116,428 (2.41%) × × 18 Lac (18.09%)
I.M.S. 1 Lac(25%) 5 Lac (10.38%) × 3.5 Lac(22.58%) 9.5 Lac (9.54%)
Total 4 Lac 481,6420 4Lac 15.5 Lac 99.5 Lac

Table 5 shows that R.K.G.I.E.T. has the largest budget, followed by V.I.E.T. Some technical substitutes have no particular budget for library materials.

Budget
Table 5. Courses Offered
  Class Courses No. of Response Percentage
A. P.G. Level MBA 9 60%
    MCA 12 80%
    M.Tech 1 6.67%
    Others × Nil
B. U.G. Level B.Tech 10 66.67%
    B.Ed. 2 13.33%
    Others 6 40%

Table 6 shows that, at the post-graduate (P.G.) level, 12 institutes (80%) offer the MCA, 9 (60%) the MBA. It is clear that the MCA and B. Tech are the most popular courses offered.

Courses Offered
Table 7: Information Technology
IT IT Number of Response Percentage
A. Conventional method 4 26.66%
B. Computerized method 10 66.66%
C. Printed database 9 60%
D. New electronic database 7 46.66%
E. Computerization completed 12 80%
F. Plans for computerization 2 13.33%

Table 7 depicts the use of information technology, including those libraries who have computerized, and those who plan to do so.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Table 8. Software Used
Lib. Software Number of response Percentage
Alice for window 2 13.33%
Lib Guru 1 6.67%
CDS/ISIS/WINSIS 1 6.67%
Home made × ×
Libsys × ×
Soul × ×
Virtua × ×
Others 8 53.33%
NR = 1-1 2 13.33%

Respondents are using a variety of software with no clear majority.

Software Used


Table 9. Hardware Used
  Hardware No. of response Percentage
A. Pentium 3 2 13.33%
B. Pentium 4 12 80%
C. Others 1 6.67%

Table 9 indicates nearly all respondents are using Pentium hardware.

Hardware Used
Table 10. Journals
Name of the institute Year Total cost Pure Science Applied Science Engineering Others
K.N. Modi 2001-02 1,02,861     15  
  2003-04 228695     28  
  2004-05 382934     64  
K.I.E.T. 2003-04 Not fixed        
  2005-06 Not fixed        
  2005-06 Not fixed        
A.K.G.I.E.T. 2001-02 4,12,000        
  2003-04 5,15,000        
  2005-06 7 Lakh        
U.I.M.T. 2001-02 14,000 8     4
  2003-04 14,000 8     4
  2005-06 23,000 40     4
B.B.I.T. 2001-02          
  2003-04          
  2005-06 2,00,000 8 35 77 10
I.P.E.M. 2001-02 20,000        
  2003-04 40,000 8 25 70  
  2005-06 1,50,000        
V.I.E.T. 2001-02 3,00,000        
  2003-04 4,00,000        
  2005-06 9,00,000        
INMANTIC 2001-02 33,000       33
  2003-04 96,000       96
  2005-06 1,33,000       133
A.B.E.S. 2001-02 50,000   5 15  
  2003-04 1,500,000   7 25  
  2005-06 3,50,000   13 41  
K.N.G.D. 2001-02          
  2003-4          
  2005-06 12,000 4   8  
S.R.M. 2001-02          
  2003-04          
  2005-06 3,00,000        
H.R.I.T. 2001-02          
  2003-04          
  2005-06 45,100     66  
I.M.R. 2001-02 7.2 Lac        
  2003-04 7.5 Lac        
  2005-06 7.5 Lac        
R.K.G.I.E.T. 2001-02          
  2003-04          
  2005-06 3,38,000     28  
I.M.S. 2001-02 45,000   5 15  
  2003-04 75,000   7 25  
  2005-06 2,50,000   13 41  

Table 10 shows that while many of the institutions have a substantial periodical budget, a number have no fixed allocation.

Table 11. Sources of Procurement
Direct Agency
10 14
66.66% 93.33%

Table 11 show that nearly all the institutions (14 - 93.33%) use agency procurement, while 10 (66.66%) also procure directly.

Sources of Procurement
Table 12. Institutional Coverage
  No. of respondents Percentage
International Level 3 20%
National level 9 16.67%
Organization on level 8 53.33%

Table 12 shows that most coverage is at the national level.

Institutional Coverage
Table 13. Technical Processing
Technical Process No. of response Percentage
Cataloguing Scheme    
(i) AACR -I    
(ii)AACR-II 12 80%
(iii) CCC    
Classification Scheme    
DDC 14 93.33%
UDC    
CC 1 6.66%

Table 13 shows that 12 institutions (80%) use AACR II as a cataloging code, while 14 (93.33%) of the respondents use Dewey Decimal (DDC) for classificaiton and one institute (6.66%) uses Colon Classification (CC)

Technical Processing
Table 14. Library Networking
Network No. of response Percentage
DELNET 8 53.33%
INFLIBNET    
EARNET    
Others 3 20%

DELNET is the most popular and extensively-used link among analyzed libraries.

Library Networking
Table 15. Human Resources
Name of the Institute Professional Non-professional Total
Dr. K.N. Modi 6 (9.09%) 4 (11.76%) 10
K.I.E.T. 6 (9.09%) 4 (11.76%) 10
A.K.G.I.E.T. 4 (6.06%) 3 (8.82%) 7
U.IM.T. × × 0
B.B.I.T. 4 (6.06%) 2 (5.88%) 6
I.P.E.M. 3 (4.54%) 2 (5.88%) 5
V.I.E.T. 3 (4.54%) 2 (5.88%) 5
I.N.M.A.N.T.C. 7 (10.60%) 3 (8.82%) 10
A.B.E.S. 5 (7.57%) 4 (11.76%) 9
K.N.G.D. 4 (6.06%) × 4
S.R.M. 2 (3.03%) 2 (5.88%) 4
H.R.I.T. 5 (7.57%) × 5
I.M.R. 3 (4.54%) 2 (5.88%) 5
R.K.G.I.E.T. 8 (12.12%) 2(5.88%) 10
I.N.S. 6 (9.09%) 4 (11.76%) 10
Total 66 34 100

A majority of the professionals work at R.K.G.I.E.T., while a majority of non-professionals are at K.I.E.T., A.B.E.S. and I.M.S.

Table 16. Staff Training
Name of the Institutes Computer programme Library Software Packages
Dr. K.N. Modi × ×
K.I.E.T. 5 (9.43%) ×
A.K.G.I.E.T. 4 (7.54%) ×
U.IM.T. 3 (5.66%) ×
B.B.I.T. 4 (7.54%) ×
I.P.E.M. 3 (5.66%) ×
V.I.E.T. 6 (11.32%) ×
I.N.M.A.N.T.C. 4 (7.54%) ×
A.B.E.S. 4 (7.54%)  
K.N.G.D. × ×
S.R.M. 1 (1.88%) ×
H.R.I.T. 4 (7.54%) ×
I.M.R. 5 (9.43%) ×
R.K.G.I.E.T. 5 (9.43%) ×
I.M.S. 5 (9.43%) ×
Total 53  

Table 16 shows that a majority of library professional have software training at V.I.E.T.

Table 17. Library Services
  No. of Response Percentage
Reprography 14 93.33%
Microfilming 1 6.66%
Microfiche    
CAS    
SDI    
Others 9 16.67%

The results show that 14 institutions (93.33%) provide reprography service.

Library Services

Findings and Conclusion

The collections of respondents' libraries include both Indian and foreign literature. The vast majority of collections are English language material (93.33%), followed by Hindi (16.67%). Most of the institutions in the population do not have substantial library collections in any format, although selected institutions do have adequate collections of books, theses and dissertations, and periodicals. The libraries of the technical institutes in the population serve faculty, research scholars, graduate students, and undergraduates. The majority of the institutes have no research scholars, while all have users in all the other categories. The budget for library materials is variable in the population. Some have no special library allocation. Most of the institutions devote their budget to the purchase of science and engineering material. Two-thirds of the institutions in the population offer the B. Tech. degree to undergraduates, while 80 percent offer the MCA at the graduate level. Eighty percent of respondents stated that their institutions were fully computerized. More than half the institutions are part of Delnet.

Technical institutes represent a growing sector of the higher education market. This is demonstrated by the array of institutions found in Ghaziabad alone. Regular budget allocations, continued computerization, and move toward digital collections would strengthen the information resources provided for the clientele of these institutions.

Works Cited

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Bekaert, Jeroen, et al. Metadata Based Access to Multimedia Architectural and Historical Archive Collection: A Review.Aslib Proceedings. 54 (6); 2002, Dec., 362-371. <http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00012530210452564>

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Appendix 1. List of Technical Institutes and Abbreviations:

Abbreviation Name
Dr. K.N. Modi Dr KN Modi Institute of Engineering & Technology

K.I.E.T. Krishna Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ghaziabad
A.K.G.I.E.T. Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College

U.IM.T. Unique Institute of Management & Technology Ghaziabad
B.B.I.T. Babu Banarsi Das Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad , IT, B.TECH ...
I.P.E.M. Institute of Professional Excellence & Management Ghaziabad .
V.I.E.T. Vishveshwarya Institute of Engineering and Technology
I.N.M.A.N.T.C. INMANTEC: Integrated Academy of Management and Technology
A.B.E.S. ABES Engineering College : Academy of Business and Engineering Sciences
K.N.G.D. KNGD Modi Engineering College
S.R.M. SRM INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
H.R.I.T. Harish Chandra Ram Kali Institute of Technology
I.M.R. Institute of Management and Research
R.K.G.I.E.T. Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology
I.N.S. Institute of Management Studies

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