Library Philosophy and Practice 2012
Influence of Motivation on Turnover of Library Personnel in Some Public Universities in South West Nigeria
Oyetola Solomon Olusegun
A characteristic of organisations in the 21st century is the continuous and rapid pace of change. Volatile free market economic environments, rapidly changing technologies, global competition, workforce diversity, and new organisational structures are some of the challenges an organisation faces. Organisations may differ in the priority they attach to the human resource component, in their efforts toward achieving high productivity and competitive advantage, yet they all recognize the value of a qualified, motivated, stable, and responsive team of employees (Huselid, 1995).
Retention and productivity levels of the existing workforce are an essential concern in human resource management. Employee turnover is one of the most studied topics in organisational psychology (Mitra, Jenkins and Gupta, 1992) and is of interest to other professionals, including personnel researchers, and managers of organisations (Mobley, Griffeth, Hand and Meglino, 1979).
According to Tella, Ayeni and Popoola (2007), the management of people at work is an integral part of the management process. To understand the critical importance of people in the organisation is to recognize that the human element and the organisation are synonymous. A well-managed organisation usually sees an average worker as the root source of quality and productivity gains. Such organisations do not look at capital investment, but at employees, as the fundamental source of improvement. An organisation is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals. An effective organisation will make sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense of commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence. In order to make employees satisfied and committed to their jobs in academic libraries, there is need for strong and effective motivation at the various levels, departments, and sections of the library.
Motivation is a basic psychological process. A recent data-based comprehensive analysis concluded that competitiveness problems appear to be largely motivational in nature (Mine, Ebrahimi, and Wachtel, 1995). Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important element of behaviour. Nevertheless, motivation is not the only explanation of behaviour. It interacts with and acts in conjunction with other cognitive processes. Motivating is the management process of influencing behaviour based on the knowledge of what make people tick (Luthans, 1998). Motivation and motivating both deals with the range of conscious human behaviour somewhere between two extremes: reflex actions such as a sneeze or flutter of the eyelids; and learned habits such as brushing one's teeth or handwriting style (Wallace and Szilag 1982: 53).
Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behaviour and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. One way of stimulating people is to employ effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. Money is not the only motivator. There are other incentives which can also serve as motivators.
Motivation is something that can come and go in an instant. The workplace often can be a fun and enjoyable place, but other times it can be the pit of hell. Not only do most of us cope with stress, fatigue, mental and physical anguish, but we must also complete the mission that is set forth for us. Motivation is delivered in many different ways. Each person may be different, but sometimes we share the same types of motivation with others.
Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important part of understanding behaviour. Luthan (1998), asserts that motivation should not be thought of as the only explanation of behaviour, since it interacts with and acts in conjunction with other mediating processes and with the environment. Luthan stresses that, like the other cognitive process, motivation cannot be seen. All that can be seen is behaviour, and this should not be equated with causes of behaviour. While recognizing the central role of motivation, Evans (1998), states that many recent theories of organisational behaviour find it important for the field to re-emphasize behaviour. Definitions of motivation abound. One thing these definitions have in common is the inclusion of words such as "desire", "want", "wishes", "aim", "goals", "needs", and" incentives". Luthan (1998), defines motivation as "a process that starts with a physiological deficiency or need that activates a behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal incentive". Therefore, the key to understanding the process of motivation lies in the meaning of, and relationship among, needs, drives, and incentives. Relative to this, Minner, Ebrahimi, and Watchel, (1995) state that in a system sense, motivation consists of these three interacting and interdependent elements, i.e., needs, drives, and incentives.
A simple definition of motivation is the ability to change behaviour. It is a drive that compels one to act because human behaviour is directed toward some goals. Motivation is intrinsic (internal), it comes from within based on personal interests, desires, and need for fulfillment. However, extrinsic (external) factors such as rewards, praise, and promotions also influence motivation. As defined by Daft (1997), motivation refers to "the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action".
People who are committed to achieving organisational objectives generally outperform those who are not committed. Those who are intrinsically rewarded by accomplishments in the workplace are satisfied with their jobs and are individuals with high self esteem. Therefore, an important part of management is to help make work satisfying and rewarding for employees and to keep employee motivation consistent with organisational objectives. With the diversity of contemporary workplaces, this is a complex task. Many factors, including the influences of different cultures, affect what people value and what is rewarding to them.
Motivation is the stimulus, incentive, or inducement to act or react in a certain way. Purposeful human behaviour is motivated behaviour, which means that either physiologic or social stimuli activate or motivate a person to do something.
According to Stephen (2000), motivation is the willingness to exert a persistent and high level of effort towards organisational goals, conditioned by the efforts' ability to satisfy some individual needs. The key elements in this definition are intensity of efforts, persistence, direction towards organisational goals and needs.
Decenzo (2001) stated that motivation is the result of the interaction between the individual and the situation. Certainly, individuals differ in the motivational drive, but an individual's motivation varies from situation to situation, from culture to culture. Robbins (2001) defined motivation as, the willingness to exert high levels of efforts to reach organisational goals, conditioned by effort's ability to satisfy some individual needs.
Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behaviour. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behaviour as well. This study refers to human motivation. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism.
When management was first studied in a scientific way at the turn of the twentieth century, Frederick Winslow Taylor worked to improve productivity in labour situations. Taylor developed efficiency measures and incentive systems. When workers were paid more for meeting a standard higher than their normal production, productivity increased dramatically. Therefore, workers seemed to be economically motivated. At this time in history, social issues involved in human behaviour were not yet considered. A more humanistic approach soon developed that has been influencing management ever since.
During the late 1920s and early 1930s, Elton Mayo and other researchers from Harvard University conducted studies at a Western Electric plant in Hawthorne, Illinois, to measure productivity. They studied the effects of fatigue, layout, heating, and lighting on productivity. As might be expected when studying lighting, employee productivity levels increased as the illumination level was increased; however, the same effect was noted when the illumination level was decreased. The researchers concluded that the attention paid to the employees was more of a contributing factor to their productivity level than the environmental conditions. The fact that paying attention to workers could improve their behaviour was called the Hawthorne effect. As a result of this research, it was evident that employees should be treated in a human way. These findings started the human relations movement –a change in management thinking and practice that viewed increased worker productivity as grounded in satisfaction of employees' basic needs. Many years later, it was discovered that the workers in the Hawthorne experimental group had received an increase in income; therefore, money was probably a motivating factor, although it was not recognized as such at the time. (Daft, 1997).
Motivation theories have continued to evolve and have their roots in behavioural psychology. They provide a way to examine and understand human behaviour in a variety of situations. On - going changes in the workplace require that managers give continuous attention to those factors that influence worker behaviour and align them with organisational goals. No one theory is appropriate for all people and for all situations. Each individual has his or her own values and differing abilities. In business settings, managers apply motivation theories to influence employees, improve morale, and implement incentive and compensation plans.
The descriptive research design of the ex-post facto type was adopted in carrying out this study. Kerlinger (1973) opined that ex-post facto research is a systematic empirical research in which the researcher does not have direct control on independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or because they are inherently not manipulated. Inferences about relations among variables are made without direct interaction from concomitant variation of independent and dependent variables.
Consequently, this study examines the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variable.
Variables in the Study
The variables in this study are independent and dependent variables.
The independent variable is: Job motivation; and the dependent variable is: Turnover Intentions.
Population of the Study
The study population consists of one hundred and twenty nine (129) Librarians and one hundred and four (104) Library Officers in public Universities in South-western Nigeria. The minimum academic qualification of the librarians shall be a first Degree in Library and Information Studies or a first degree in any discipline with a Master's Degree in Library and Information Studies or Information Sciences. For Library Officers, the least qualification shall be a Diploma in Library and Information Studies. The target population of this study includes two hundred and thirty three (233) Librarians and Library Officers that are available in the public Universities in South-western Nigeria.
Table 1. Showing the breakdown of two hundred and thirty three (233) professional Librarians and Library Officers in the selected Public Universities in South western Nigeria
Sample size and sampling procedure
Total enumeration technique was used to cover all the two hundred and thirty three (233) Librarians and Library Officers. This is because the target population of the study is not too large for the researcher to cover although enough for the research scope.
The main research instrument for this study is the questionnaire which was developed by the researcher. The questionnaire was used for data collection because of the high level of literacy of the respondents and because it is the most widely used and acceptable instrument in non-experimental studies involving large population. The Demographic Information, Job Motivation and Turnover Intentions questionnaire (DIJMTI) scale was used for this study.
Reliability of the Instrument
To ascertain the reliability of the instrument, the researcher used the test-retest method. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, thirty (30) copies of the corrected version were administered to Librarians and Library Officers in four (4) selected private Universities in South-western Nigeria, namely; Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo; Bowen University, Iwo, Lead City University, Ibadan and Redeemer's University, Lagos – Ibadan Express way, Ogun State. Cronbach-alpha method was used to obtain reliability of the questionnaire. The coefficients of each of the sub-scale are:
A – (Job Motivation) 0.81; and
B – (Turnover Intention) 0.86 respectively.
Procedure for data collection
A total of two hundred and thirty three (233) copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents in the selected public Universities in South - western Nigeria. The questionnaires were administered personally by the researcher to Librarians and Library Officers in the selected public Universities in South-western Nigeria. Four (4) Research Assistants were also employed by the researcher in order to make the administration of the questionnaire less cumbersome and to ensure high response rate. The instructions guiding the answering of the questionnaire were equally explained to the respondents one after the other. Out of two hundred and thirty three (233) copies of the questionnaire that were administered, two hundred and twenty six (226) copies were returned and properly completed. These copies which represent a response rate of 97% were used for the analysis.
Methods of Data Analysis
In the analysis of the data collected from the questionnaires, simple statistical techniques such as frequency table and percentages were used in the presentation of results to make interpretations and inferences. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the demographic data as well as to answer the research questions. Inferential statistics of Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.
Presentation of results
The findings were presented in descriptive form using frequencies and percentages. Tables, mean and standard deviations were also used in the study. The sequence of presentations was presented with the demographic data of the respondents, the research questions and this was followed by the hypotheses. The hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product - Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis.
Demographic Information of Respondents
The target population of this study comprises of professional and Library Officers working in ten selected public (Federal and State) Universities in South-western Nigeria. A total of two hundred and thirty three (233) questionnaires were administered on the respondents, out of which two hundred and twenty six (226) copies were returned and found valid for analysis, giving a response rate of 97%.
Federal Universities have the highest number of respondents with one hundred and sixty nine (169) respondents representing 74.8% while State Universities has fifty seven (57) respondents representing 25.2%.
The distribution of the respondents by sex shows that male respondents are one hundred and twenty six (126) (55.8%) while their female counterparts are one hundred (100) (44.2%) respectively.
Distribution of the respondents by age range shows that thirteen (13) (5.8%) are of age range 20 – 29 years, eighty six (86) (38.1%) are of age 30 – 39 years, one hundred (100) (44.2%) are 40 – 49 years while twenty-seven (27) (11.9%) are 50 – 59 years respectively.
Again, the distribution of the respondents by marital status revealed that twenty three (23) (10.2%) are single, one hundred and ninety seven (197) (87.2%) are married, five (5) (2.2%) are divorced while only one (1) (0.4%) is widowed.
Also, the distribution of the respondents by highest academic qualification shows that thirty eight (38) (16.8%) had Diploma Certificates, forty-seven (47) (20.8%) had Bachelor Degree, one hundred and thirty four (134) (59.3%) had Masters Degree while seven (7) (3.1%) had Ph.D. Degree respectively.
Lastly, the distribution of the respondents by Department or Section also revealed that fifty four (54) (23.9%) are in Acquisition, ninety (90) (39.8%) in Cataloguing, thirty four (34) (15%) in Circulation, twenty nine (29) (12.8%) in Reference fifteen (15) (6.6%) in Serials while four (4) (1.8%) are in other Departments.
Table 2.1: Distribution of the respondents by Employer
In Table 2 above, one hundred and sixty nine (169) (74.8%) of the respondents are from Federal Government owned Universities while their counterparts from State Government owned Universities are fifty seven (57) (25.2%).
Table 2.2: Distribution of the respondents by Sex
In Table 2.2, the male respondents are one hundred and twenty six (126) (55.8%) while their female counterparts are one hundred (100) (44.2%).
Table 2.3: Distribution of the respondents by Age Range
Table 2.3 shows that thirteen (13) (5.8%) of the respondents are within the age range of 20-29 years, eighty six (86) (38.1%) of them are within the age range of 30-39 years, one hundred (100) (44.2%) are within the age range of 40-49 years while twenty seven (27) (11.9%) of them are within the age range of 50-59 years.
Table 2.4: Distribution of the respondents by Marital Status
In Table 2.4, the single respondents are twenty-three (23) (10.2%), the married ones are one hundred and ninety seven (197) (87.2%), the divorced are five (5) (2.2%) while only one (1) respondent (0.4%) is widowed.
Table 2.5: Distribution of the respondents by Highest Academic Qualification
Table 2.5 shows that thirty-eight (38) (16.8%) of the respondents hold Diploma Certificates, forty-seven (47) (20.8%) hold Bachelor Degree Certificates, one hundred and thirty four (134) (59.3%) hold Master Degree Certificates while seven (7) (3.1%) has Ph.D. Degree.
Table 2.6: Distribution of the respondents by Years of Working Experience
In Table 2.6 above, Eight three (83) (36.7%) of the respondents have between 1-5 years of working experience, forty four (44) (19.5%) had 6-10 years, thirty seven (37) (16.4%) had 11-15 years, thirty nine (39) (17.3%) had 16-20 years while twenty three (23)(10.2%) had over 20 years working experience.
Table 2.7: Distribution of the respondents by Department or Section
In table 2.7, fifty four (54) (23.9%) of the respondents are in Acquisition Section, ninety (90) (39.8%) are in Cataloguing Section, thirty-four (34) (15.0%) are in Circulation Section, twenty-nine (29) (12.8%) are in Reference Section, fifteen (15) (6.6%) are in Serial Section while four (4) (1.8%) are in other departments.
Table 3: Are library personnel in the Public Universities well motivated?
The above Table shows the perception and rating of the level of motivation which the library personnel in the public Universities had in the study, viz:
Deriving standing and feeling of importance from work and job security (x=2.10, S.D=0.74), Supervising other people's task and performance (x=2.03, S.D=0.77), Opportunity to boost earning related to job performance (x=2.03, S.D=0.78), Varied, stimulating and creative job objectives and work activities (x=1.95, S.D=0.62), Freedom and discretion to decide how to carry out work (x=1.94, S.D=0.76), Operating as part of a team rather than as an individual contributor (x=1.89, S.D=0.82), Being in charge, exercising control, having responsibility for people and resources (x=1.86, S.D=0.63), Acknowledge by the bosses and colleagues of efforts, skills and competences. (x=1.86, S.D=0.68), Opportunity to continually advance to more senior position (x=1.82, S.D=0.81), Secure, permanent and reliable job position (x=1.80, S.D=0.74) and Opportunities to acquire new knowledge and skills, reach personal potential (x=1.68, S.D=0.75).
Table 4: What is the rate of Turnover Intention of library personnel in the public University workers?
The above Table 4 shows the perception and rating of the level of Turnover Intention which Library Personnel in public Universities had in the study, viz:
I would quit my present job for a similar position with better pay in another organisation at the least opportunity (x=2.88, S.D=1.07), As soon as I can find a better job, I will quit this organisation (x=2.81, S.D=1.03), I will probably look for a job outside of this organisation within the next 3 years (x=2.22, S.D=0.97), It is very unlikely that I would ever consider leaving this organisation (x=2.14, S.D=0.94), Continuation with my present employer will not fulfill my life expectation (x=2.10, S.D=0.98), I prefer very much not to continue working for this organisation (x=2.04, S.D=0.87) and I will likely actively look for a new job in the next year (x=2.04, S.D=0.90.), I often think about quitting my job (x=2.00, S.D=0.89).
Table 5: There is no significant difference in the Turnover Intention s of the Library Personnel by their place of work
sThe above Table shows that there was no significant difference in the Turnover Intentions of the Library Personnel in Federal and State Universities (Crit-t = 1.96, Cal.t = .253, df = 224, P > .05 level of significance). The null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
The result of this study shows that there is no significant difference in the turnover intentions of the Library Personnel by their place of work. This supports researches on achievement motivation which reveals that the motive to avoid failure and the motive to succeed is similar. This was conceptualized by Steal (2000), supported by Gorge and Jones (1996) and Boomic (2003). They submitted that all human beings share the same basic motivational striving for superiority and this is a drive that propels organisations towards perfection.
However, some evidences of a positive relationship between job motivation and performance have been found in a number of meta -analytical studies. The strength of the relationship has been very small (Petty, McGee and Cavender 1984; Judge et al., 2001; Fisher, 2003). Petty McGee and Cavender (1984), found in their studies that the relationship is stronger for higher level employees.
Concerning the distribution of the respondents by employers, majority of them (i.e.) one hundred and sixty nine (169) representing 74.8% are employed by the Federal Government while their counterparts from the State Government universities are fifty-seven (57) representing 25.2%.
The result of the gender distribution of the respondents shows that majority of them are male (i.e.) one hundred and twenty-six (126) representing 55.8% while their female counterparts are one hundred (100) which translates to 44.2%. This implies that there are more males than female library personnel.
Distribution of the respondents by age shows that thirteen (13) (5.8%) are between the age range of 20 – 29 years; eighty-six (86) (38.1%) are of the age range of 30 – 39 years, one hundred (100) (44.2%) are of the age range of 40 – 49 years, while twenty seven (27) (11.9%) are of the age range of 50 – 59 years. Majority of the respondents; one hundred and ninety-nine (199) (88.1%) fall between the age range of 20 – 49 years which can be said to be years of active service. Thus, staffs within this age bracket are likely to be more productive than their counterparts who fell within the age range of 50 and 59 years.
The result of the study also reveals that one hundred and ninety-seven (197) (87.2%) of the respondents are married. This implies that they will show more commitment to their job than those that are single. This is because married people are not likely to be looking for jobs here and there like their single counterparts.
Result of the study also reveals that forty-seven (47) (20.8%) of the respondents are First Degree holders while one hundred and thirty-four (134) (59.3%) hold the Masters Degree.
The distribution of the respondents by years of working experience was ranged between 1 and 21 years and above. The result shows that majority of them fall between 1 and 20 years. The total number within this range is two hundred and three (203) which translates to 89.8%. This implies that majority of the respondents had spent the active part of their life in their various organisations.
The distribution of the respondents by Department or Section also reveals that fifty-four (54) (23.9%) were in Acquisition; ninety (90) (39.8%) in Cataloguing; thirty-four (34) (15%) in Circulation; twenty nine (29) (12.8%) in Reference; fifteen (15) (6.6%) in Serials and four (4) (1.8%) in other Departments or Sections. The result of the study reveals that there are more people in the Cataloguing Department. This is because, it is the engine room of the library.
Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions are drawn. The variables examined under job motivation produced significant results. They have significant effect on turnover intention of the respondents. The variables can serve as useful administrative tools that can further enhance the productivity of the library personnel.
It also reveals a relationship between turnover intention and job motivation. The study also reveals that library personnel in public universities are motivated although the level of motivation is not very high. This shows that there is still need for improvement in their conditions of service.
Lastly, on the turnover intentions of library personnel in public universities, a large number of them would quit if they have opportunities for better pay in similar organisations while they are also not fulfilled about their life expectations with their present employers.
Based on the results, there is a correlation between turnover intentions and job motivation of library personnel. Turnover intentions of the library personnel are high but there is still need for improvement. Library Personnel in public universities are not well motivated.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made;
(1) Public universities should design developmental programmes that would focus on greater motivation of workers in order to reduce their turnover intentions.
(2) The tertiary institutions should ensure that salaries and allowances of library personnel are paid promptly.
(3) Good working relationship must be established among personnel in order to minimize their turnover intentions.
(4) Motivation on the job should not be restricted to material gifts, awards of medals and certificates; sponsorships for training should also be introduced.
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