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Library Philosophy and Practice 2012

ISSN 1522-0222

An Analytical Study of Institutional Digital Repositories in India

Bijan Kumar Roy
Assistant-Librarian
K. K. Das College(Affiliated to the University of Calcutta), GRH-17, Baishnabghata Patuli
P.O. – Garia, Kolkata – 700084, West Bengal, India

Dr. Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay
Assistant Professor, Department of Library and Information Science
The University of Burdwan
West Bengal, INDIA

Dr. Subal Chandra Biswas
Professor
Department of Library and Information Science
The University of Burdwan
West Bengal, INDIA

Introduction

The Open Access movement is a social movement. The movement traces its history at least back to the 1960s, but became much more prominent in the 1990s with the advent of digital communications, in particular the Internet. Before the advent of internet, File Transfer Protocol, gopher, and the World Wide Web were used to increase availability of scholarly material by lowering the barriers to distribution. It has since become the subject of much discussion among researchers, academics, librarians, university administrators, funding agencies, government officials, commercial publishers, and learned-society publishers. Prior to the advent of the Internet publishers and academic societies dominated scholarly communication, and researchers channeled their research output solely through authoritative publishers and academic societies. Now different models are being developed to provide access, manage costs, and manage an organization's scholarly output, especially at colleges and universities. The currently evolving model is referred to as Open Access. The two schools of thought within Open Access are the journal reform school, and the self-archiving school.

IR: Some thoughts

Institutional repositories are becoming prevalent in academic sector. In the face of rising costs, flat budgets, and restricted access to information, as well as rapid changes in technology, scholarly practice, and patron expectations, libraries of any type or size have been challenged to maintain their depth of collections and high level of services. IRs are being established for a variety of reasons:

i) to support open access movement;

ii) to provide access to the public funded research;

iii) to provide open access to the institution's output; and

iv) to support preservation and so on.

A repository can hold wide range of materials in different forms and formats for scholarly communications. It can support research, learning, and scholarly communication processes of an organization. If it is properly developed, it advances a number of goals and addresses an impressive range of needs.

Few years ago, Institutional repository initiatives were initiated only in some developed countries. In India, Institutional repository movement was started in 2004 and is gaining momentum and new initiatives are emerging around the country. Institutional repositories are already well established in many IITs, IIMs and other institutes having national importance. Institutional Repository has become an essential part or component of digital library that provides an alternative platform for sharing knowledge globally. Institutional Repository has four characteristics as defined by Johnson (2002). They are mentioned below:

  • institutionally defined (as opposed to discipline- or subject-focused);
  • scholarly (containing the products of faculty, research staff, and students);
  • cumulative and perpetual (the content will be preserved on a long-term basis); and
  • open and interoperable (attentive to the Open Archives Initiative—Protocol for Metadata Harvesting).
  • Definition

In simplest terms, a digital repository is where digital content, assets, are stored and can be searched and retrieved for later use. A repository supports mechanisms to import, export, identify, store and retrieve digital assets.

According to the SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) position paper on institutional repositories "an institutional repository is a digital archive of the intellectual product created by faculty, research staff, and students of an institution, with few if any barriers to access"(Crow, 2002)

According to Lynch (2003), "a university-based institutional repository is a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members. It is most essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution."

Government Initiatives

University Grants Commission (2005) has already developed a policy document on building University level Institutional Digital Repository (http://www.ugc.ac.in/new_initiatives/etd_hb.pdf) in India. UGC has recommended that all the universities should set up theses repository to facilitate e-submission, archiving, maintenance and access to these repository at the university level. University Grants Commission (2005) enacted "UGC (Submission of Metadata and Full-text of Doctoral Theses in Electronic Format) Regulations, 2005" to strengthen national capability of producing electronic theses and dissertations, and, to maintain university-level and national level databases of theses and dissertations. This Regulation proposed two sets of planned actions, such as:

  • Creation of Indian National Theses Database (INTED):
  • Submission of PhD Theses in Electronic Form

Another government organization, National Knowledge Commission (2007) strongly advocates open access to public-funded research literature and recently has taken initiative for building nation wide institutional Repository. Bangalore declaration (2006) drafted a model National Open Access Policy for Developing Countries also support this view and advocated for open access institutional repository. Some professional associations and societies like Developing Library Network (DELNET), INFLIBNET (Information Library Network) are also involved in modernization of libraries, training and setting up the IRs.

Growth and Development of IDRs

Many universities and research institutes in India have developed institutional repository for archiving documents of their own. It is not only limited to Science and Technology but also on other disciplines. More than 60 academic and research institutions have set up their Institutional Repositories as indicated by ROAR (Registry of Open Access Repository) and DOAR (Directory of Open Access Repository) viz., IISc, IIMK, ISI, NCL, NIO, RRU, NAL, NIT and so on. There are a few institutions have not registered in ROAR or DOAR. Recently, MHRD (Ministry of Human Resource Development) has also advised all INDEST members (Indian National Digital Library in Engineering, Sciences and Technology) to set up institutional repository using open source software. The following table shows the growth and development of IR in India.

Growth of IDRs

Table 1: Growth Rate of Repository (year-wise)

Year

No. of Repository

Growth Rate (%)

2010

10

16.67

2009

11

18.33

2008

10

16.67

2007

5

8.33

2006

12

20.00

2005

8

13.33

2004

4

6.67

Total

60

100

Figure 1: Growth Rate of Repository (year-wise)

1

Figure 2: Growth Rate of Repository (year-wise)

2

The growth rate of IDRs per year is not satisfactory in compare to other developed countries. Few repositories have not registered in DOAR or in ROAR and did not provide information about registration.

Study of IDRs

From DOAR and ROAR, I have recorded 60 (See Annexure – 1) repositories for this study. Although there is a vast difference in number of repositories registered in ROAR and DOAR. As per ROAR the total number of repository is 60, whereas in DOAR only 42 repositories have been registered (as on 24/12/2010). I have not considered those repositories which are hosted on Intranet/LAN. I have not also considered those repositories have not provided information regarding number of records, software used, subject covered, content type etc.

Types of Repository

There are different types of repositories available in open access mode. As per ROAR, repositories have been categorized as follow:

Table 2: Types of Repository

Type

No.

Percentage

Research Institutional /Departmental

39

65.00

Research Cross-Institutional

04

6.67

E-theses

06

10.00

E-journal

04

6.67

Learning and Teaching

02

3.33

Others

05

8.33

Out of a total of 60 repositories, 39 (65%) are research institutional, 4 (6.67%) are cross institutional, 6 (10%) are e-theses, and 4 (6.67%) are e-journal and 2 (3.33) are learning repository in nature.

Figure 3: Types of Repository

3

There are only 4 (four) subject base repository (National Informatics Centre, National Centre for Catalysis Research, Librarians Digital Library and Open Agri) and 5 (five) repositories contain theses and dissertations (Indian Institute of Science, National Institute of Technology, Vidhyanidhi, Mahatma Gandhi University, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research).

Number of Objects

Based on data and statistics as given by 60 repositories, it appears that there is a vast difference amongst repositories in terms of average number of digital objects contained. A few IDRs have strong collections whereas others have uploaded minimum number of objects. Few repositories have not mentioned the number of objects uploaded.

Type of Objects

The selected IDRs considered for this study contains a wide variety of digital objects. Generally it has been found that institutional repository contents full-text contents of journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, monographs, research reports, project reports, theses, dissertations, patents, presentations, computer programs, tutorials, convocation addresses, audio materials, video materials, course materials, multimedia materials, handbooks, data books, technical manuals etc. As far types of the digital objects are concerned, this study groups the digital objects in the following broad groups.

  • Published papers (preprints, post prints, conferences)
  • Books
  • Theses
  • Unpublished documents
  • Multimedia objects
  • Learning objects
  • Special items etc. (including datasets, software, patents, references)

Software

Open source digital library packages are gaining popularity nowadays. The different IRs use different types of open source software like Dspace, Eprints, Greenstone, Nitya, etc. Few IRs have not mentioned about type of software used. It is clear from the study that the DSpace software 35 (59%) has the most installations followed by EPrints 20 (33%). Greenstone is used by 2 (3%) repository and stands 3rd position. Nitya is used by only 1 repository. The table (3) shows the software used by the different repositories:

Table 3: Repositories by Software Type

Software used

No.

Percentage

DSpace

35

59

EPrints

20

33

Greenstone

02

03

Not Specified/In-house

02

03

Nitya

01

02

Total

60

100

Figure 4: Repositories by Software Type

4

Special items

Few repositories have accumulated special items other than books, theses, articles, journals, reports etc. The special items are mentioned below:

  • Newspaper clippings, Newspaper articles, newspaper reports
  • Previous Exam papers
  • Case reports, Biographies
  • Links

Only a few repositories have customized their interface other than English language and provide email alerting services to notify their users of newly added materials.

Findings

From the above study of 60 Indian repositories, it is found that

Growth rate of IRs per year is quite low in compare to other developed countries;

  • OAI-PMH base URLs are not working for a few cases;
  • Only a few have included learning objects and multimedia documents;
  • There are mainly two search options viz. simple search advance search;
  • Users can browse by Author, Title, and Date;
  • All the IRs has Boolean search facility;
  • Some institutes have not provided total number of records;
  • Theses and dissertations are the common objects of all repositories;
  • No information regarding year of registration and policy issues are concerned;
  • Only a few IR contains special items;
  • Only a few IR customized their interface; and
  • Only a few IR provides email alerting service.

Conclusion

IDRs are at a critical point in their development. Although growth of IR initiatives is quite satisfactory in compare with other developing countries. Based on the background information and discussion presented in this paper, it is found that there is scope for developing a 'Best Practice Guidelines' for designing institute-oriented IDR. Manpower requirements, quality and quantity of contents, metadata standards, technical specifications, copyrights barrier, and policy issues are major concerns that need to be addressed for developing IDRs as component of open access knowledge movement. However, the findings of our study suggest that IDRs could become a compelling and useful tool for collecting, organizing and disseminating intellectual output of an institute. If properly implemented with the existing practices, IDRs has the potential to fulfill many unmet expectations.

References

Bangalore Declaration (2006): A National Open Access Policy for Developing Countries. Retrieved February 01, 2011 from http://www.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/OAworkshop2006/pdfs/NationalOAPolicyDCs.pdf

Crow, Raym. (2002). The Case for Institutional Repositories: A SPARC Position Paper. Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved April, 2010 from http://www.arl.org/sparc/IR/ir.html.

Directory of Open Access Repository (2011). Home page of DOAR. Retrieved January 21, 2011, from http://www.opendoar.org/countrylist.php?cContinent=Asia

Johnson, R.K. (2002). Institutional repositories: partnering with faculty to enhance scholarly communication. D-Lib Magazine, 8 (11). Retrieved April 21, 2010, from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november02/johnson/11johnson.html

Lynch, C. (2003). Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age. ARL Bimonthly Report 226. Retrieved May 21, 2010, from www.arl.org/newsltr/226/ir.html

National Knowledge Commission (2007). Report of the Working Group on Open Access and Open Educational Resources. New Delhi: National Knowledge Commission. Retrieved January 05, 2011 from http://knowledgecommission.gov.in/downloads/documents/wg_open_course.pdf

Registry of Open Access Repositories (2011). Home page of ROAR. Retrieved January 21, 2011, from http://roar.eprints.org/index.php?action=search&query=india

University Grants Commission (2005). UGC (Submission of Metadata and Full-text of Doctoral Theses in Electronic Format) Regulations. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from www.ugc.ac.in/new_initiatives/etd_hb.pdf.

Annexure – 1: List of IDRs under study

S. L.

No

Name

URL

Total

Records

Software

Content Type

Subjects

1

Agriculture Research Repository (Openagri)

http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/openaccess/

NA

NA

Articles; Conferences; Books

Chapter

Agriculture, Food and Veterinary

2

Bangalore Management Academy

http://bma.ac.in:8080/dspace

823

DSpace

Learning and Teaching Objects

Multidisciplinary

3

Bharathidasan University Library

http://172.16.1.10:8084/DSpace/

NA

DSpace

Learning and Teaching Objects

Multidisciplinary

4

Bioinformation

http://www.bioinformation.net/

320

NA

E-journal, Articles.

Biological Science

5

Central Drug Research Institute

http://dkr.cdri.res.in:8080/dspace/index.jsp

135

DSpace

Articles; Unpublished

Biology, Biochemistry; Health, Medicine

6

Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants

http://kr.cimap.res.in/index.jsp or

http://203.190.147.121/index.jsp

121

DSpace

journal articles, conference proceeding articles, Technical reports, thesis, dissertations,

Agriculture, Biology, Chemistry

7

Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFR)

I

http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/

6549

EPrints

Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books; Patents

Agriculture, Food & Veterinary; Biology & Biochemistry; Ecology & Environment; Health & Medicine

8

Cochin University of Science and Technology

http://dspace.cusat.ac.in/dspace/

1912

DSpace

Articles; Learning Objects; Multimedia; Special

Multidisciplinary

9

Delhi College of Engineering

http://202.141.12.109/dspace

326

DSpace

Publications, Learning Objects, Dissertations, Multimedia.

Science & Technology

10

Delhi University

http://eprints.du.ac.in/

172

EPrints

Preprints, Conferences, Books, Articles, Patents

Multidisciplinary

11

Indira Gandhi National Open University Gyankosh)

http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/

6190

DSpace

Learning Objects

Multidisciplinary

12

GB Pant University of Agriculture & Technology

http://202.141.116.205/dspace

82

DSpace

Research papers, Reports, Articles

Horticulture, Biology, Biotechnology, , MBA(agribusiness)

13


Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University

http://

dspace. ipu. ernet. in: 8080/ jspui/

not working

129

DSpace

Articles; Theses; Learning Objects

Multidisciplinary

14

ICFAI Business School

http://202.131.96.59:8080/dspace

171

DSpace

Post prints, Conferences, Books.

Mathematics, Statistics, Economics; Management and Planning

15

IIT Bombay

http://dspace.library.iitb.ac.in/dspace/

15

DSpace

Theses, Dissertations, Publications.

Engineering & Social sciences

16

IIT Delhi

http://eprint.iitd.ac.in/dspace/

2154

DSpace

Theses, Dissertations, Publications.

Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Humanities

17

IIT Kanpur

www.cse.iitk.ac.in/gsdl/cgi-bin/library

797

Greenstone

Theses, Dissertations, Projects.

Engineering and Technology

18

Indian Agricultural Research Institute

http://eprints.iari.res.in/

82

EPrints

Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished

Agriculture, Food & Veterinary

19

Indian Institute of Astrophysics

http://prints.iiap.res.in/

1584

DSpace

Theses, Publications, Multimedia.

Physics & Astronomy

20

Indian Institute of Information Technology

http://eprints.iiita.ac.in/

22

EPrints

Research papers, Articles.

Management Science, Electronics communications Technology

21

Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode

http://dspace.iimk.ac.in/

283

DSpace

Publications, Conferences, Theses, Unpublished.

Business, Economics,

Management & IT

22

Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode Scholarship Repository

http://eprints.iimk.ac.in/

283

EPrints

Preprints, Unpublished.

Multidisciplinary

23

Indian Institute of Science-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

http://etd.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/

243

DSpace

Theses.

Multidisciplinary

24

Indian Institute of Science

http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/

18849

EPrints

Publications, Conferences, Patents, Unpublished.

Physics, Chemistry , Astronomy, Mathematics, Statistics.

25

Indian Institute of Spices Research

http://220.227.138.214:8080/dspace/index.jsp

NA

DSpace

research articles, book chapters, project reports, annual reports

Chemistry, biotechnology

26

Indian National Science Academy

http://61.16.154.195/dspace/

818

DSpace

Publications, Images, Reports, conferences

Science General, Technology General

27

The Institute of Mathematical Sciences

https://www.imsc.res.in/eprints

not working

41

EPrints

Conferences; Learning Objects

Mathematics and Statistics

28

Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology.

http://eprints.immt.res.in/

33

EPrints

Journal papers, conference papers, reports, theses, patents

Chemistry

Metallurgy

29

ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics)

http://openaccess.icrisat.org/

3372

DSpace

Articles; Conferences; Learning Objects; Multimedia

Multidisciplinary

30

Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research

http://oii.igidr.ac.in:8888/dspace

193

DSpace

Conferences; Theses; Unpublished

Multidisciplinary

31

INFLIBNET

http://dspace.inflibnet.ac.in/

486

DSpace

Conferences, Learning Objects.

Multidisciplinary

32

ISI Library

http://library.isibang.ac.in:8080/dspace/

191

DSpace

Publications.

Mathematics and Statistics

33

Librarians' Digital Library

(DRTC)

https://drtc.isibang.ac.in/

357

DSpace

Publications, Conferences, Theses, Multimedia.

Library and Information Science

34

Madurai Kamaraj University Repository

http://eprints.mkuoa.in/

eprints. bicmku. in

21


EPrints

Articles

Biology and Biochemistry

35

Mahatma Gandhi University - Online THESIS Search

http://mgutheses.org/

913

Nitya

Theses

Multidisciplinary

36

Management Development Institute

http://dspace.mdi.ac.in/dspace

325

DSpace

Postprints, Conferences, Books.

Multidisciplinary

37

Medknow

http://eprints.medknow.com/

NA

EPrints

E-journal,

Publications

Medical Science

38

National Aerospace Laboratories

http://nal-ir.nal.res.in/

2518

EPrints

Publications, Conferences, Patents Theses, Learning Objects, Multimedia.

Mathematics, Statistics, Mechanical Engineering

39

National Center for Antarctic Research

http://dspace.ncaor.org:8080/dspace/

582

DSpace

Antarctic Science, Environment and ecology

40

National Centre for Catalysis Research

http://www.eprints.iitm.ac.in/

1478

EPrints

Publications, Conferences, Theses.

Chemistry and Chemical Technology

41

National Centre for Radio Astrophysics

http://ncralib.ncra.tifr.res.in/dspace/

22

DSpace

Research papers, Theses, Articles.

Astronomy, Physics, Astrophysics

42

National chemical Laboratory

http://dspace.ncl.res.in/dspace/

407

DSpace

Theses, Unpublished, Patents.

Chemistry and Chemical Technology

43

National Informatics Centre (NIC)

http://openmed.nic.in/

2412

EPrints

Publications.

Health and Medicine

44

National Institute of Immunology

http://eprints.nii.res.in/p

10

EPrints

Articles; Unpublished

Biology and Biochemistry

45

National Institute Of Oceanography

http://drs.nio.org/

605

DSpace

Publications, Conferences, Theses.

Science & Technology General, Arts and Humanities General;

46

National Institute of Technology (NITR)

http://dspace.nitrkl.ac.in/dspace/

412

DSpace

Publications, Preprints, Conferences.

Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy

47

National Metallurgical Laboratory.

http://eprints.nmlindia.org/

1750

EPrints

Patents, Theses, Report, Articles

Applied physics, Computer science, Materials Science

48

NISCAIR ONLINE PERIODICALS REPOSITORY (NOPR)

http://nopr.niscair.res.in/

9473

DSpace

Journals, Magazine,

Articles; References

Multidisciplinary

49

OneWorld South Asia Open Archive Initiative

http://open.ekduniya.net/

91

EPrints

Publications; Conferences, Patents, Theses.

Computers, IT, Library and Information Science

50

Open Access Repository of Indian Theses (CSIR) Unit

http://eprints.csirexplorations.com/

630

EPrints

Theses, Patent, Article

Multidisciplinary

51

OpenMED

http://openmed.nic.in/

1298

EPrints

Publications,

Health and Medicine

52

Institute of Petroleum Management

ibrary.pdpu.ac.in:8080/xmlui/

64

DSpace

Articles; Unpublished

Multidisciplinary

53

Physical Research Laboratory

http://www.prl.res.in/~library/

Greenstone

Journals, Bulletin, Theses, report

Physics, Astronomy

54

Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology

http://www.rgcb.res.in/

NA

EPrints

E-journal.

Biotechnology

55

Raman Research Institute Digital Repository

http://dspace.rri.res.in/dspace/

3763

DSpace

Postprints, Unpublished, Learning Objects

Physics and Astronomy

56

Sri Venkateswara University, Tripathi

http://202.141.117.109:8080/DSpace

1086

DSpace

Learning and Teaching Objects

Multidisciplinary

57

S.V. National Institute of Technology Repository

http://eprints.svnit.ac.in/

14

EPrints

Articles; Conferences

Technology General

58

Thapar University

http://dspace. thapar. edu: 8080/ dspace/

938

DSpace

Articles; Conferences; Theses

Multidisciplinary

59

University of Hyderabad

http://202.41.85.207:8080/dspace

396

DSpace

Theses, Dissertations,

Research paper.

Multidisciplinary & Multilingual

60

Vidyanidhi Digital Library & E-Scholarship Portal

http://dspace.vidyanidhi.org:8180/dspace/

1835

DSpace

Theses & Dissertations

Multidisciplinary