[RSS] [Google]

homepage

contents

contact us

Library Philosophy and Practice 2011

ISSN 1522-0222

An Evaluation of State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) Libraries in Selected States in South-West Nigeria

Adetoun Sote
University Library
Redeemers' University for Nations (RUN)
Redemption Camp, Mowe, Ogun State, Nigeria

Kolawole Akinjide Aramide
Abadina Media Resource Centre
University Of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria

Ajibola Gbotoso
University Library
Osun State University
Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria

Introduction

The library serves as the nerve centre of all educational institutions and a crucial factor in the educational development of men at all levels especially in educational institutions. It is associated with all forms of education; formal, informal and non-formal. It consists of a collection of a collection of books and other materials maintained and managed for reading, consultation, study and research and organized to provide access to users, with a well-trained staff to provide services to meet the needs of its users. The library, which is the hub of any educational set up, provides information and idea that are fundamental to functioning successfully in the increasingly information and knowledge-based society.  The library is, therefore, able to equip pupils and students’ imagination, thereby enabling them to live as responsible citizens (IFLA/UNESCO, 2002).

The school library is committed to the development of the basic education sector, which is the foundation of any educational set-up. The need for adequate provision of information materials, staff, infrastructural facilities, accommodation is essential for school library to perform its role effectively.  School libraries are established to support the educational curriculum of schools, which could only be achieved through various means such as the provision of relevant library resources, which are relevant with the school curricula, provision of various information services ranging from technical to readers services (Markless and Streatifield 2004).

However, a school library should have a balanced collection which must include printed and non-printed materials, electronic materials and audio-visuals. The balanced collection should also include materials for leisure purposes such as novels, music, computer games, videocassettes, video laser discs and magazines, among others.  These kinds of materials may be selected in cooperation with the students to ensure it reflects their interests and culture without crossing reasonable limits of ethical standards.

The influence and importance of libraries for young people has been extensively discussed as the library is considered as having the most positive effect on young people. Libraries are specially established for every intellectual institution.  It is really essential and necessary for the primary school, since it constitutes a big and rare treasure

A school library collection is a repository of knowledge with specific emphasis on the school curriculum.  Thus, a standard school library offers a wide range of materials that can answer the question, of developing the mind of the students.  According to Elaturoti (1998) learning resources for school libraries consist mainly of print and non-print media.  The print media include books, periodicals, newspapers, pamphlets, brochures, handbills and ephemerals].  However, books constitute the bulk of print materials in the school libraries, the non-print materials comprise of photographs, slide, audio tapes, film strips, motion films, video tapes, computers and realia.

The National Policy on Education, from which the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) derives its establishment clearly states the objectives of Nigerian education and indicates that the philosophy of the nation’s education is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizen and the provision of equal opportunities for all citizens at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels inside and outside the formal school system.  The curriculum for the various levels therefore aims at fulfilling the objectives of the policy.  The basic education (primary) is given emphasis because it is at this level that a sound educational foundation ought to be given.  Education at this level (primary) is expected to develop permanent literacy and numeracy and the laying of a sound base for scientific reflective thinking (Fayose, 1995).

The introduction of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programmes is aimed at reforming specifically, the basic education sector and the Nigerian Education sector in general.  One of the objectives of the blueprint for the resuscitation of the basic education sector according to Adediran (2003) is “enhancing and energizing the curricular and its delivery. Thus UBEC libraries are established to promote to promote reading culture in Nigerian schools as well as enhancing and energizing the curricular and delivery.  The replica of UBEC in the States is known as the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB). The SUBEBs also have responsibilities for establishing libraries in the states. SUBEB libraries are supposed to be able to adequately provide library and information resources and services that will meet the needs of pupils and teachers as well as support school curricula. SUBEB libraries are designed to serve as model school libraries and benchmark for school libraries development.

State Universal Primary Education Board (SUBEB), an offshoot of UBEC in the states, is established to address the inequality in educational opportunity at the basic level and improving the quality of its provision.  The programme was introduced by the Federal government to remove distortions and inconsistencies in basic education delivery and reinforce the implementation of the National Policy on Education as well as to ensure access, equity and quality of basic education throughout the country.  According to Adediran (2003) the establishment of SUBEB libraries can be traced to the need to enhance and energize the curriculum and its delivery.

The importance of school libraries cannot be over-emphasized. The school library has major and significant role to play in supporting and enhancing educational goals as authored in the school’s mission and curriculum. It has come in the wake of making teaching and learning more meaningful and enriched for children. For a long time, teachers depend on their notes of lessons, textbooks and rote learning dominated the school system. Education was teacher centred rather than child centred. The inadequacy of teacher’s notes of lessons and learning by note was later dumped as people realized that learning can be enhanced and accelerated by the use of a wide variety of learning methodologies and resource. The modern school library has therefore become an integral part of the school system.

The UBEC library development blueprint emphasized the establishment of a model library at the headquarters in each State. Also, as part of the development policy each state is to develop a Learning Resource Centre (LRC) in a selected school in each of the Local Government Areas (LGEAs) in each of the states. The LRC is to cater for the information, learning and teaching needs of the teachers, pupils, community people and other users within the Local Government Area. According to Obanya (2001) the development of State and LGEAs LRCs is part of the nationwide school library development programme. They are SUBEB LRCs in each local government in each of the state selected for the study. The LRCs is to cater for the teaching, learning and research needs of pupils, teachers and researchers. The establishment of these LRCs in each Local Government Areas is in line with the Universal Basic Education programme blueprint of the Federal Government. The LRCs is to cater for the formal school training and the non-formal programmes, which are specifically designed for up-dating the knowledge and skills of persons who left school before acquiring the basics needed for life-long learning (Amucheazi, 2001).

SUBEB libraries are established to serve as a model and anchor for school libraries development in Nigeria.  Much recognition has been accorded SUBEB libraries as a pivot point around which teaching and learning activities in primary schools in the states revolve. However, they have not been able to perform important role of collecting, processing, storage and making available and accessible information materials to support teaching and learning. Visits to the learning resource centres in LGEAs and SUBEB headquarters libraries in Oyo and Ogun States revealed low patronage by users.  Some of the SUBEB libraries and learning resources centres (LRCs) are almost empty as there are very few information resources available in them. This has resulted in low patronage of users as they can not have access to information relevant to their needs. Also the reading habits of pupils and teachers are negatively affected as they were discouraged from using the library.

Thus, this study intends to evaluate the library resources and services of the SUBEB libraries.  The study will look into the relevance, recency, adequacy, availability, accessibility and utilization of library resources at the SUBEB libraries.  The relevance of services being rendered to the needs of library users, such as pupils and teachers will be examined.

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study include:

  • identifying the range of resources and services available in SUBEB libraries in South west, Nigeria.
  • assessing the relevance and adequacy of SUBEB library resources, services and infrastructural facilities to the needs of pupils and teachers in the school.
  • determine the frequency of utilization of SUBEB libraries by library users.
  • identifying the challenges constraining the users in making effective use of SUBEB libraries/LRCs

Literature Review

Universal Basic Education was introduced by the Obasanjo administration in September 1999 in Sokoto. However the UBE bill was signed into law on 26th of May 2004 following its passage by the National Assembly.  According to Tahir (2005) the UBE Act (2004) makes primary and junior secondary education free and compulsory for all children within the target population and also guarantees regular funding from the Federal government for the programme.  The Act also provides for the establishment of the state Universal Basic Education Boards (SUBEBs). The Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) was formally established on 7 October 2004.

The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme is a  nine (9) year basic educational programme which scope of operation involve the development of prgorammes and initiative for early childhood education and focus on a six year Primary Education and a three year Junior Secondary Education. The nine (9) years basic continuous education stipulates that every child that passes through the system should have acquired appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, communication, manipulative and life skills and be employable useful to himself and the society at large by possessing relevant ethical, moral and civic values (UBE Implementation guidelines, 2000). The objectives of the UBE according to Odebode (2006) are to basically provide free and compulsory universal and nine year basic education for every Nigerian child of school-age, reduce drastically the incidence of dropout from the formal school system, through improved relevance, quality and efficiency; ensuring the acquisition of appropriate level of literacy numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as the ethical, moral and civic values. These are to ensure a solid foundation for lifelong learning.  

The adoption of the 1999 constitution paved way for the urgent introduction of UBE in Nigeria. The constitution provides that “Government should direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels.  According to Ukeje 2000 and Okeke (2001), section 18 (3) of the constitution stipulates that government should and when practicable provide “a free, compulsory and universal education.

The scope of UBE programme emphasizes that the school library will provide services to five categories of users viz: the pre-school children, primary school children, students in the mass literacy non-formal education sector and the nomads, depending on the location of the school library.  Elaturoti (2001) corroborated this by emphasizing that the beneficiaries of the UBE should have access to effective library service within the school, at zonal school library media centre within the LGEA, public libraries within and outside the local government and other nearby special libraries and information centres among others. 

Of primary importance is the library within the school, which is within easy reach of the pupils/students and done which the school media programmes will be based.  To facilitate the establishment of libraries in the schools, at least a classroom should be set aside to accommodate the school library collection and provide the service point for media use in the school.  A multi-purpose built library building is ideal and should be planned and provided as the zonal school libraries and/or other libraries that will serve a cluster of schools (Islam, 1998).

Moreover, Amucheazi (2001) mentioned school libraries as one of the facilities needed for quality assurance of the UBE programme.  However, library provision in Nigeria is found to be below standard.  The picture for school is more dismal. The obvious implication according to Dinh (2000) is that these libraries cannot play the much-desired role of being a primary agency for ensuring the success of the UBE programme.

Elaturoti (1998) asserted that the state Ministries of Education have consistently and persistently abdicated their responsibility to school libraries.  The UBE blue print stated that: Government will provide junior libraries for primary school children. Libraries are incorporated into new basic education being put up as part of the plan for Universal Basic Education. Also, Fafunwa (1992) maintained that the school library in relevant to the attainment of Federal Government aspirations in introducing the Universal Basic education in Nigeria

Omolayole (2001) emphasized that it is incontrovertible that libraries form a vital part of the world’s system of education as they provide through books, films, computers/internet, recording microforms, CD-ROMs and other media knowledge that have been accumulated through the ages.  According to Herbert (1997) young children’s literacy develops and emerges and they explore and participate in a literacy rich environment.  At the centre of such an environment are books and other resources with contents that are familiar and fascinating for children.  Hayneman (1989) once submitted that in spite of all the changes in educational philosophies, aims and pedagogy that have permitted school systems in the developing countries, the central importance of text books and other learning resources have not been diminished.  

Also, according to Tahir (2005) the school library, aside from enhancing literacy and numeracy through access to a variety of relevant learning resources, encourages sharing and caring for communal resources, just as it strengthens civic and moral values.  This therefore makes the school library an integral component of the school curriculum.  The Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) intends to ensure that this role of school library becomes a reality by advocating for a place for the “library” in the school time table. It was established that students who studied in a literacy rich environment perform better than those who do not have this advantage.  Lack or insufficient provision of learning resources and poor management of resources constituted to the failure of any laudable educational programmes of the government.  Ukeje (2000) corroborated this by identifying lack of political will instability, incomplete, inconsistent and outdated data, inadequate teaching and library materials, hasty planning and lukewarm support of the people as major pitfalls of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme introduced in 1976.

Obanya (2001) emphasized that library development is one sure way of enhancing “beyond access” issues in the implementation of the UBE programmes.  The implementation guidelines for the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme call infrastructures and facilities (including classrooms, libraries etc) “the physical and spatial enablers of teaching and learning.  Surveys around the world on the reading ability of children show that one of the factors that influence children’s reading achievements is the accessibility to books in their immediate environment, at home, in the classroom, and in the school library.  Children introduced to books at an early stage grow to be more confident readers when they grow up (Moore, 2001).

The Federal Government of Nigeria (2000) blueprint on school library development emphasized the adoption of school library development policy nationwide; the development of state and LGEAs specific guidelines adapted from the nationwide school library development; school library services as a core subject in pre-service teacher training programmes; the provision of adequate supplementary and reference reading materials for schools and regular updating of library materials, among others. The school library is acknowledged in the National Policy on Education as one of the educational institutions required to achieve the nation’s education goals.

Edeghere (2001) also opined that to maintain quantity and quality on what children are taught and what they learn in the UBE programme, school libraries must feature prominently in teaching – learning, skills to pupils and teachers must be stimulated to ensure resources based on teaching and learning rather than the traditional role learning. According to Daniel (2001) proprietors of schools are required to provide functional libraries in all their educational institutions. The school library is an essential ingredient in learning at any level of education.  Dike (1998) sees the school library as the intellectual centre of the school containing records not only of the intellectual but also cultural and social products. The school library assists teaching by storing instructional materials such as textbook, audiovisual materials, magazines, newspapers, journals and reference material.  It is the function of the library to support information to keep staff and students abreast of new developments. However, Nancy (1998) affirmed that most school libraries did not meet the required set standard.  Hence, majority of the students used the library as quiet place to study their own textbooks and notebooks.

Moreover, the UBE implementation guidelines libraries emphasize that libraries have to be of the appropriate quantity, size and quality to meet the minimum standards for promoting any meaningful teaching and learning (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2000). According to Dike (2001), school libraries provide a viable way out of the evil effect of lack of reading culture. Since the school library serves the UBE programme which is an inclusive programme encompassing the formal school system from the beginning of primary education to the end of junior secondary school, programmes/ initiatives for early childhood care and socialization, educational programmes for the acquisition of functional literacy, numeracy and life skills, especially for adults (FGN, 2000); then a permanent experience can truly be established within nine years.  Dike (2001) refers to the school library as an basic of informality in a generally formal system. It is an indispensable organ that provides all the resources for the child’s proper educational growth.  School libraries are indeed central to the development of individual pupil.

According to Ezemoa (1989) school libraries have important roles to play, both in the context of the educational system and in preparing the future generation of library users.  They provide the environment where students can discover and develop their abilities and talents and where teachers can improve their skills and locate a wide range of learning resources. The absence of adequate and efficient library services will have negative effects on the products of the educational process.  This assertion is reinforced by Nwafor’s (1977) submission that with the absence of libraries in our schools pupils cannot be expected to be library conscious, and this situation has had conspicuous adverse effects on our educational system.

Ekpo (2004) sees the school library as an extension of classroom activities with the purpose of making education more effective. The school library viewed in this way is both a place of learning and a place that houses the tools of learning. Kolade (2008) asserts that the role of school library is very crucial to learning as it provides the rudiments to learning, gives information that can change people’s lives to a better one, encourages students to study, learn and achieve better results as well as provides confidence to look for information on their own at different levels.  The provision of library services is very crucial and indispensable to any form of education; elementary, tertiary and eventually life long learning.

According to Odunsanya and Amusa (2004) school library provides and atmosphere for self-education and self-development of individual students and public in general.  It is expected to bring its services within the reach of every adult member of the public and every child in the school irrespective of their social and mental status; and also to provide resources of all types on all subjects for students at various levels and classes.  However, Odebiyi (1992) emphasized that public schools are being established in the country today without adequate plans for functional school library to serve as the complement of teaching and learning. Even students do not see school library as beneficial to education. Etim (2002) also affirmed that none of the inputs towards curricular evaluation since 1967 has considered the library media factor and inculcation of information handling skills in secondary school children as a strategy to enhance children’s ability to learn acquire knowledge, assimilate it analyze, critically appraise, and come up with an appreciation and understanding of the knowledge acquired.

Obayemi (2002) deplores the neglect of library and its development in some government owned secondary schools in Lagos state.  The libraries were grossly under underfunded, understaffed, understocked and unorganized.  The absence of government policy on school library development has been identified as a major factor stalling the growth and development of school library and resource centre in Nigeria. The availability of such policy would have set the minimum standard for funding, staffing, stocking and management of school libraries.

The importance of school libraries in developing reading interests of children cannot be overemphasized. However, it has been observed that most school libraries have insufficient stock to play this role. Fayose (1995) held the skeletal fiction collection and restrictions placed on the use of school library by children as responsible for their lack of voluntary reading. The importance of access is emphasized. Dike (1998) emphasized story telling, reading together, reading clubs and literacy events as major activities/methods that can be used to develop the reading interest of children. 

The standard of school libraries today in the developed world had gone beyond a book oriented collection. Less than fifty years ago the school library was simply a small classroom lined with books that were underutilized by students and faculty alike, except for occasional recreational reading (Moris, 2004).  School libraries have evolved over the years in how they are used and their functions in the educational setting.  At one time school libraries were totally book oriented, but the school library media centres of today use all types of media instructions; they are automated and they utilize the internet for information gathering. 

The school library at both primary and secondary levels has been aptly described as the heart of the school around which all school programme revolve. Traditionally, school library serve as a veritable medium for the attainment of the broad objectives of education. Despite their inestimable importance, school libraries in Nigeria are still clearly in their embryonic stage of development, displaying inadequacies in funding, staffing, collections, accommodation, furniture/equipment and service provision.

Dike (2001) emphasized that accommodation for school library should have conditions favourable to the maintenance of the collection, such as good ventilation, enough light but protection from direct sunlight, temperature and humidity controls as far as possible, a reasonably quiet location. In addition to the structure, collection needs include shelving for books and journals, display racks for magazines, filing cabinets for pamphlets and clipping files, storage for large graphic media, audiovisual resources and equipment etc. there is also the need for space for viewing and listening to certain media: large tables for maps, computer stations, carrels, chairs etc.

Elaturoti (1990) writing on accommodation standards emphasized that a model school library media centre should provide space for the following activities; display area, reading area, work-room, audio-visual unit, multi-purpose room and toilet facilities among others. Dike (2001) corroborated Elaturoti (1990) views by highlighting reading room, workroom, multi-purpose room, audiovisual room and classroom libraries as minimum accommodation standards for school library.

Kolade (1998) highlighted the personnel requirement for a school library media centre. The school library media centre should have adequate and efficient staff because the effectiveness and success of the school library media centre’s programme depends not only on the physical facilities but on the competency of the staff. These competent staff should possess good temperament and good sense of human relationship. She further emphasized that a school library media centre requires staff to select, acquire, organize and make teaching and learning resources available to both the students and the teachers.

On school library information resources, Elaturoti (1990) highlighted the school library media centre resources to include, books, periodical, newspaper, pamphlets, brochures, handbills, and ephemeral notices, audio materials (disc, phonographic records, audio-tapes on reels and cassettes), film materials (slides, film-strips, motion picture films as well as other forms of photographic film), graphics, video materials (video-tapes on reels, cassettes and cartridges as well as video disc), Realia (toys, games, model and actual specimens) and microforms (microfilm, microfiche and microcard). Morris (2004) highlighted other school library resources to include, Information communication technology facilities such as  computers, computer diskettes, computer programmes, multi-media collection, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, audio graphic communications, Broadcast TV/Radio + audio-teleconferencing and Interactive Multimedia. He emphasized the need for annual financial provisions for the replenishment of school library stock.

Methodology

The descriptive survey research design method was adopted for this study while the multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in selecting the sample. The population for this study comprises of all the users (teachers, pupils etc) in the three selected states of the south west viz: Oyo, Ogun and Osun states. However, since the population is a large one, a representative of the population was selected to form the sample population. There are a total of 83 Learning Resource Centres (LRCs) and 3 SUBEB model libraries spread across the three states that were chosen for the study (UBEC Bulletin, Nov. 2008). The LRCs were distributed across the Local Governments Areas in each State. The distribution of LRCs in the selected states is as follows: Oyo - 33 LRCs; Ogun - 20 LRCs; Osun - 30 LRCs

The stratified random sampling technique was adopted in classifying the SUBEB learning resource centre/libraries based on their location; whether they are located within the capital city or outside the capital city.  The learning resource centres and libraries located within the capital city were chosen for the study. Thus, only thirteen of the LRCs in the three states selected were located in the capital city. Six (6) LRCs were located in Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo state, three (3) LRCs were located in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun state while four (4) were located in Osogbo, the capital city of Osun state.

The random sampling technique was adopted in choosing the respondents for the study. Ten percent (10%) of the registered teachers were selected from each state to form the sample population for the study. The decision to choose ten percent was borne out of the fact that the population was very large. Thus a total of 138 teachers were selected for the studyviz: Oyo state, 72, Ogun state, 32 and Osun state, 34.

The distribution of users chosen form each states is presented in Table 1

States Number of registered users in the selected libraries per state Sample size (10% of registered users)
Oyo 722 72
Ogun 315 32
Osun 342 34
Total 1379 138

Source: Information on number of registered users extracted from UBEC Bulletin, 2008.

Copies of questionnaire designed for library users will be administered on the selected users.

Discussion of Findings

Table 1: Teachers’ opinion on availability and accessibility of learning resources in SUBEB library / LRCs

Learning resources Frequency percentage
  Available Accessible
Textbooks 95 (77.2%) 45 (36.6%
Fiction books 75 (61.0% 39 (31.7%)
Journals 56 (45.5%) 33 (26.8%)
Magazine / Newspapers 57 (46.3%) 36 (29.3%)
Maps/ Atlases 59(48.0%) (29.3%)
Encyclopedias 57(46.3%) (21.1%)
Dictionaries 86(69.9%) 25 )20.3%
Documentary sources 28(22.8%) 16 (13.0%)
Computers 30 (24.4%) 17 (13.8%)
CD ROMs 25(20.3%) 12 (9.8%)
Audio materials 34(27.6%) 20(16.3%
Video material 25(20.3%) 21 (17.1%)
Radio 22(17.9%) 19 (15.4%)
Television 20(16.3%) 23 (18.7%)
VCD/DVD 29(23.6%) 25 (20.3%)
Games / 44(35.8%) 25 (20.3%)
Others 6 (4.9%) 10 (8.16)

Table 1 presented respondents view on the availability and accessibility of learning resources in the SUBEB library/ LRCs. The table revealed that majority of the respondents attested to the availability of textbooks (95 or 77.2%), dictionaries (86 or 69.9%) and fiction books (75 or 61.0%). On the other hand, few of the respondents attested to the accessibility of these identified learning resources. This implies that textbooks, dictionaries and fiction books are the most commonly available learning resources in SUBEB/ library /LRCs even though other learning resources such as journals, magazines / newspapers, maps/ Atlases, encyclopedias are also available. It can further be deduced from the table that the learning resources are not readily accessible to the teachers as revealed in the responses of the respondents presented in the table.

Table 2: Teachers’ opinion on the services available at SUBEB library /LRCs

Services Frequency Percentage %
Provision of reading materials 89 72.4
Provision of conducive environment for study 61 49.6
Lending of books 68 55.3
Computer / internet services 18 14.6
Story hour service 18 14.6
Other services 7 5.7

Table 2 above revealed that the majority of the users attested that services such as provision  of reading materials, (89 or 72.4%), lending of books (68 or 55.3%) and provision of conducive environment for study are readily available at SUBEB library/ LRCs. This implies that provision of reading materials service, lending of books service and provision of conducive environment for study, which are the basic objectives of setting up the library are readily available in SUBEB libraries /LRCs. This is in support of Dike (2001) views that emphasized provision of opportunities for further reading and use, provision of materials for learning and recreation and provision of up-to-date information to keep staff and students abreast of new development, among others as the objectives of school library

Table 3: Frequency of library/LRC use by teachers

Response Frequency Percentage %
Daily 13 10.6
Weekly 45 36.6
Fortnightly 17 13.8
Monthly 14 11.4
Quarterly 12 9.8
Bi-Annually 6 4.9
Annually 15 12.2
No response 1 0.8
Total 123 100.0

Table 3 presented information on the frequency of library use by respondents and it revealed that majority of the users (75 or 61.0%) attested that they make use of the library on a regular basis (i.e daily, weekly and fortnightly). This implies that the teachers make regular use of the SUBEB library / ERC. This corroborated Nana (1998) views that emphasized that the school library is a place for quiet learning and enjoyment where pupils, students and teachers visits to make use of information materials.

Table 4: Teachers’ opinion on adequacy and relevance of learning resources in SUBEB library / LRCs

Learning resources Frequency percentage
  Adequately available Relevant
Textbooks 95 (77.2%) 45 (36.6%
Fiction books 75 (61.0% 39 (31.7%)
Journals 56 (45.5%) 33 (26.8%)
Magazine / Newspapers 57 (46.3%) 36 (29.3%)
Maps/ Atlases 59(48.0%) (29.3%)
Encyclopedias 57(46.3%) (21.1%)
Dictionaries 86(69.9%) 25 )20.3%
Documentary sources 28(22.8%) 16 (13.0%)
Computers 30 (24.4%) 17 (13.8%)
CD ROMs 25(20.3%) 12 (9.8%)
Audio materials 34(27.6%) 20(16.3%
Video material 25(20.3%) 21 (17.1%)
Radio 22(17.9%) 19 (15.4%)
Television 20(16.3%) 23 (18.7%)
VCD/DVD 29(23.6%) 25 (20.3%)
Games / 44(35.8%) 25 (20.3%)
Others 6 (4.9%) 10 (8.16)

Table 4 presents respondents view on the adequate availability and relevance of learning resources in the SUBEB library/ LRCs. The tables revealed that majority of the respondents attested to the adequate availability of textbooks (95 or 77.2%), dictionaries (86 or 69.9%) and fiction books (75 or 61.0%). On the other hand, few of the respondents attested to the relevance of these identified learning resources. This implies that there is adequate availability of print based resources at the expense of electronic or computer based resources even though these resources are not relevant to the needs of users. It can further be deduced from the table that the learning resources availability at SUBEB libraries/LRCs  are not relevant to the needs of the users as revealed in the responses presented in the table.

Table 5: Users opinion on availability of Learning facilities/infrastructural facilities

Learning facilities   Fr equency / Percentage
  Adequately available Inadequately available  I can’t say No response
Tables 93 (75.6%) 18 (14.6% 6 (4.9%) 6(4.9%)
Chairs 92 (74.8%) 18 (14.6%) 6(4.9%) 7 (5.7%)
Shelves 83(67.5%) 25(20.3%) 6(4.9%) 9(7.3%)
Fans 20 (16.3%) 63(51.2%) 26(21.1%) 14(11.4%)
Air/ Conditioner 7 (5.7%) 65 (52.8%) 37(30.1%) 14(11.4%)
Staffing 49 (39.8%) 51 (41.5%) 10(8.1%) 3(10.6%)

Table 5 revealed that the majority of the users attested to the adequate availability of tables (83 or 75.56%) chairs (92 or 74.8%) and shelves (83 or 67.5%); and inadequate availability of Air Conditioner (65 or 52.8%), Fans (63 or 51.2%) and Staff (51 or 41.5%). This implies that Tables, Chairs, and Shelves are adequately available in the SUBEB library/ LRCs while other facilities such as Air conditioner and Staffing are not adequately available.

Table 6: Teachers’ opinion on challenges hindering their use of SUBEB library/LRCs

Challenges Frequency Percentage %
Lack of conducive accommodation 32 26.0
Lack of current teaching and learning resources 68 55.3
Shortage of seating space 16 13.0
Inadequate opening hours 2 17.1

Table 6 presented information on challenge hindering users from using SUBEB library/LRCs and its revealed that majority of the users (68 or 55.3%) identified lack of current teaching and learning resources as factors hindering them from using SUBEB library.  This implies that lack of current teaching and learning resources is a major factor hindering the users of SUBEB library/LRCs.

Conclusion

One of the basic elements to facilitate the success of Universal Basic Education programme is the library. A functional library has been identified as a major component of the school library programme, hence the implementation of Universal Basic Education programme can not be successful without functional Library. The study has confirmed the relevance and adequacy of SUBEB libraries/LRCs in the success of the Universal Basic Education Programme.

The adequacy and relevance of the library collection and staff as well as the availability of relevant school library services and effectiveness in service delivery at SUBEB libraries/LRCs were all established by the study. In other words, SUBEB libraries/LRCs are found to be very relevant to school activities in the selected states.  However, there is need for adequate provision of infrastructural such as air conditioners and fans among others to make the users feel comfortable using the library. Also, the change in the paradigm of teaching and learning that has entrenched learner-centred teaching requires the use of computer-based and multimedia learning resources which are not adequately available in the UBEC learning resource centres.

Recommendations

Government and library management should ensure the development of a multimedia based collection. This enables individual learning and makes learning interesting. Multimedia collection will also attract the pupils to the use of the library.

Also, government should improve on the funding of the SUBEB libraries/LRCs to enable the provision of adequate facilities and resources needed for effective functioning of the library and the staff. Funding can also be sought form private organizations and individuals as the government alone can not fund the libraries effectively. Individuals and private organizations can be encouraged to fund library projects through Public-Private Partnership Initiatives. The “adopt a school initiative” of the present administration in Oyo state is a good example, which other states can emulate.

Government and schools should also encourage pupils to use the libraries/LRCs through the creation of a library period on the time table. Also, the opening hours of the libraries should be extended beyond school hours to give pupils the opportunity of using the library. Teachers can encourage the pupils to use the library by giving them assignments that will take them to the library on a regular basis. The provision of computer-based/electronic/multimedia learning resources should be taken seriously in order to enable teachers fit into the change in paradigm shift in education from teacher-centred to learner-centred.

There is also the need for regular maintenance and renovation of library facilities. Even though there are adequate facilities in the library. Observation revealed that some of the facilities are deteriorating; hence there is need for repairs and renovation. Proper maintenance of the facilities will guide against total breakdown.

Lastly, there should be proper evaluation of the activities of SUBEB libraries/LRCs on a regular basis to ensure that the purpose for which the libraries/LRCs are established is not defeated.

References

Adediran, S.A. 2003. Oyo government library development policy in primary schools. Symphony of service: The Oyo SPEB years. H. Salam and D. Saseyi. Eds. Ibadan: Green Dome Nig. Ltd., 187-193.

Amucheazi, O.N. 2001. The need for community oriented school library services for the effective implementation of the universal Basic Education Programme. Nigeria School Library Journal. 4. 182:  39-44.

Daniel, C.I. 2001. The school libraries and the librarians: making a difference in the knowledge age. Being a compendium of papers presented at the 39th National conference and AGM of the NLA held at Owerri, 109-104.

Dike, V.W. 1998. The role of the school library in reading promotion. Nigerian School Librarianship: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. D.F Elaturoti.Ed. Ibadan: Nigerian School Library Association: 34-42

Dike, V.W. 2000. Conditions for UBE success. Vanguard, October, 16. 4605:  p9.

Dike, V.W. 2001. School Library facilities required for successful implementation of the UBE programme in Nigeria.  Nigerian school Library Journal. 4. 1&2: 5-13.

Dike, V.W. 2004. The role of the school librarian in implementing the curriculum. Nigerian school library journal. 5. 1: 21-25.

Dinh, Van hoang. 2000. Systems (lines). Paper presented at the 66th IFLA conference. Jerusalem: Israel, 13-18 August. p13

Edeghere, F. 2001. The role of the “Library –teacher” in UBE. Nigerian school library journal. 4. 1$2: 55-59.

Ekpo, C.M. 2004. Personnel factors in a functional school library resource centre. Paper presented at the Nigerian school Library Association Annual Conference, Kaduna 22-26 October. 15-29.

Elaturoti, D.F. 1998. Learning resources and development for Nigerian school libraries. In: Elaturoti, D.F. (ed). Nigerian school Librarianship: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Ibadan: Nigerian school library Association.49-58.

Elaturoti, D.F. 2000. Strategies of school library practice in the new millennium. In library and information agenda for the new millennium: A compendium of paper presentations at the NLA Annual National Conference and AGM, Abuja. 85-90.

Elaturoti, D.F. 2001. Personnel requirement for effective school library service in the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Nigeria. Nigerian School Library Journal. 4. 1$ 2: 23-32.

Etim, F.E. 2002. Integrating information handling skills into the curriculum, a panacea for educational reforms in secondary school in Nigeria. Nigerian Libraries. 36. 1&2: 20-27.

Fafunwa, Babs A. 1992. Minimum standards for school libraries in Nigeria. Lagos: Federal Ministry of Education. p5

Fayose, P.O. 1995. School Library Resource centres for Educational Excellence. Ibadan: AENL publishers. p20

Fayose, P.F. 1998. New developments in library and information resources for school libraries. In: Elaturoti, D.F. ed. Nigerian school librarianship: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Ibadan: Nigerian school library Association. 59-73.

Federal Republic of Nigeria. 2000. Implementation Guidelines for the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Education. p22

Federal Republic of Nigeria. 1999. UBE blueprint. Abuja: Federal Republic of Nigeria. p4

Freeman, P. 1975. Pathfinder: An operational guide for the school librarian. New York: Haper & Row Publishers. p5

IFLA/UNESCO. 2000. The school libraries and learning for all: IFLA/UNESCO school library manifesto. IFLANET, p3.

IFLA/UNESCO. 2002. IFLA/UNESCO school library manifesto: the school library in teaching and learning for all. Retrieved from http//www.ifla.org. 22/06/08

Islam, M.A. 1998. School libraries in Bangladesh: A state-of-the-art report. School libraries Worldwide. 4. 2: 37-38.

Markless, S & Streatfield, D. 2004. Improve your library: a self evaluation process for secondary school libraries and learning resources centres. Nottingham: DES publications. p35.

Moore, P. 2001. An analysis of information literacy education worldwide. White paper prepared for UNESCO the US commission on libraries and information science and the National foundation on information literacy. For use at the information literacy meeting of experts, Prague, the Czech Republic.  p11

Morris, F.O. 2004. Schools Library Services 1990-2000. School Librarian. 49.1: 12-13.

Nana, B. 1998. School libraries: catalysts for authentic learning.” School Library Media Quarterly. 25.2: 89-90. 

Nwafor, B.U. 1977. The library and the educational process.  Nigerian Journal of Education. 1. 2. 182-191.

Obanya, P. 2001. Library development for UBE. Nigerian School Library Journal. 4. 1 &2: 1-4.

Obayemi, A.S. 2002. Assessment of school library service in a local government area, Lagos state, Nigeria: A case study. Journal of Library, Archival and Information Science. 12. 1: 59-61.

Odebiyi, O. 1992. Gateway: the grant strides of the government and people of Ogun state (April 1976-1992), Abeokuta. p6

Odunsanya, O.K. and Amusa, O.I 2004. The school library and learning and teaching in Nigerian secondary schools. Nigeria school library Journal. 5. 1: 33-46.

Okeke, A.O. 2001. Essentials of special education: Nsukka: Afro-Orbis publications Ltd.

Omolayole, O.O. 2001. The role of the National Library in the provision of effective Library services in support of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in Nigeria. Nigerian School Library Journal. 4. 1&2. 15-21.

Tahir, G. 2005. School library development for the universal Basic Education Programme. Keynote address presented at the opening ceremony of the 18th Annual conference of the Nigerian school library association, 28-1st October. p7

Ukeje, B.O. 2000. Universal Basic Education Programme in Nigeria: Logistics and implementation strategies.  The Nigerian Universal Basic Education Journal. 1.1: 10-17.

homepage

contents

contact us