Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organisational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria
University of Botswana
C.O. AyeniFederal College of Forestry Library
S. O. Popoola, Ph.D.Department of Library Archival and Information Studies
Faculty of Education
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
The management of people at work is an integral part of the management process. To understand the critical importance of people in the organization is to recognize that the human element and the organization are synonymous. An well-managed organization usually sees an average worker as the root source of quality and productivity gains. Such organizations do not look to capital investment, but to employees, as the fundamental source of improvement. An organization is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals. An effective organization will make sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense of commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence. In order to make employees satisfied and committed to their jobs in academic and research libraries, there is need for strong and effective motivation at the various levels, departments, and sections of the library.
Motivation is a basic psychological process. A recent data-based comprehensive analysis concluded that competitiveness problems appear to be largely motivational in nature (Mine, Ebrahimi, and Wachtel, 1995). Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important element of behaviour. Nevertheless, motivation is not the only explanation of behaviour. It interacts with and acts in conjunction with other cognitive processes. Motivating is the management process of influencing behaviour based on the knowledge of what make people tick (Luthans, 1998). Motivation and motivating both deal with the range of conscious human behaviour somewhere between two extremes:
Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behaviour and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. One way of stimulating people is to employ effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. Money is not the only motivator. There are other incentives which can also serve as motivators.
Specific employee attitudes relating to job satisfaction and organizational commitment are of major interest to the field of organizational behaviour and the practice of human resources management. Attitude has direct impact on job satisfaction. Organizational commitment on the other hand, focuses on their attitudes towards the entire organization. Although a strong relationship between satisfaction and commitment has been found, more recent research gives more support to the idea that commitment causes satisfaction. However, most studies treat satisfaction and commitment differently, especially in light of things like downsizing that are part of modern organizations.
The way librarians in research and academic institutions perceive motivation influences their level of satisfaction and commitment. While job satisfaction and commitment have been the topic of many studies, but the present studies is presents new information and a new perspective, describing job satisfaction, motivation and commitment of librarian particularly in the context of Oyo state, Nigeria.
Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important part of understanding behaviour. Luthan (1998) asserts that motivation should not be thought of as the only explanation of behaviour, since it interacts with and acts in conjunction with other mediating processes and with the environment. Luthan stress that, like the other cognitive process, motivation cannot be seen. All that can be seen is behaviour, and this should not be equated with causes of behaviour. While recognizing the central role of motivation, Evans (1998) states that many recent theories of organizational behaviour find it important for the field to re-emphasize behaviour. Definitions of motivation abound. One thing these definitions have in common is the inclusion of words such as "desire", "want", "wishes","aim","goals", "needs", and" incentives". Luthan (1998) defines motivation as, "a process that starts with a physiological deficiency or need that activates a behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal incentive". Therefore, the key to understanding the process of motivation lies in the meaning of, and relationship among, needs, drives, and incentives. Relative to this, Minner, Ebrahimi, and Watchel, (1995) state that in a system sense, motivation consists of these three interacting and interdependent elements, i.e., needs, drives, and incentives.
Managers and management researchers have long believe that organizational goals are unattainable without the enduring commitment of members of the organizations. Motivation is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a person's degree of commitment (Stoke, 1999). It includes the factors that cause, channel, and sustain human behaviour in a particular committed direction. Stoke, in Adeyemo (1999) goes on to say that there are basic assumptions of motivation practices by managers which must be understood. First, that motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing. One cannot feel very good about oneself if one is not motivated. Second, motivation is one of several factors that go into a person's performance (e.g., as a librarian). Factors such as ability, resources, and conditions under which one performs are also important. Third, managers and researchers alike assume that motivation is in short supply and in need of periodic replenishment. Fourth, motivation is a tool with which managers can use in organizations. If managers know what drives the people working for them, they can tailor job assignments and rewards to what makes these people "tick." Motivation can also be conceived of as whatever it takes to encourage workers to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs. To Olajide (2000), "it is goal-directed, and therefore cannot be outside the goals of any organization whether public, private, or non-profit".
Strategies of Motivating Workers
Bernard in Stoner, et al. (1995) accords due recognition to the needs of workers saying that, "the ultimate test of organizational success is its ability to create values sufficient to compensate for the burdens imposed upon resources contributed." Bernard looks at workers, in particular librarians, in an organized endeavour, putting in time and efforts for personal, economic, and non-economic satisfaction.In this era of the information superhighway, employers of information professionals or librarians must be careful to meet their needs. Otherwise, they will discover they are losing their talented and creative professionals to other organizations who are ready and willing to meet their needs and demands. The question here is what strategies can be used to motivate information professionals, particularly librarians? The following are strategies:
Salary, Wages and Conditions of Service: To use salaries as a motivator effectively, personnel managers must consider four major components of a salary structures. These are the job rate, which relates to the importance the organization attaches to each job; payment, which encourages workers or groups by rewarding them according to their performance; personal or special allowances, associated with factors such as scarcity of particular skills or certain categories of information professionals or librarians, or with long service; and fringe benefits such as holidays with pay, pensions, and so on. It is also important to ensure that the prevailing pay in other library or information establishments is taken into consideration in determining the pay structure of their organization.
Money: Akintoye (2000) asserts that money remains the most significant motivational strategy. As far back as 1911, Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate described money as the most important factor in motivating the industrial workers to achieve greater productivity. Taylor advocated the establishment of incentive wage systems as a means of stimulating workers to higher performance, commitment, and eventually satisfaction. Money possesses significant motivating power in as much as it symbolizes intangible goals like security, power, prestige, and a feeling of accomplishment and success. Katz, in Sinclair, et al. (2005) demonstrates the motivational power of money through the process of job choice. He explains that money has the power to attract, retain, and motivate individuals towards higher performance. For instance, if a librarian or information professional has another job offer which has identical job characteristics with his current job, but greater financial reward, that worker would in all probability be motivated to accept the new job offer. Banjoko (1996) states that many managers use money to reward or punish workers. This is done through the process of rewarding employees for higher productivity by instilling fear of loss of job (e.g., premature retirement due to poor performance). The desire to be promoted and earn enhanced pay may also motivate employees.
Staff Training: No matter how automated an organization or a library may be, high productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness of the workforce. Staff training is an indispensable strategy for motivating workers. The library organization must have good training programme. This will give the librarian or information professional opportunities for self-improvement and development to meet the challenges and requirements of new equipment and new techniques of performing a task.
Information Availability and Communication: One way managers can stimulate motivation is to give relevant information on the consequences of their actions on others (Olajide, 2000). To this researcher it seems that there is no known organization in which people do not usually feel there should be improvement in the way departments communicate, cooperate, and collaborate with one another. Information availability brings to bear a powerful peer pressure, where two or more people running together will run faster than when running alone or running without awareness of the pace of the other runners. By sharing information, subordinates compete with one another.
Studies on work motivation seem to confirm that it improves workers' performance and satisfaction. For example, Brown and Shepherd (1997) examine the characteristics of the work of teacher-librarians in four major categories: knowledge base, technical skills, values, and beliefs. He reports that they will succeed in meeting this challenge only if they are motivated by deeply-held values and beliefs regarding the development of a shared vision. Vinokur, Jayarantne, and Chess (1994) examine agency-influenced work and employment conditions, and assess their impact on social workers' job satisfaction. Some motivational issues were salary, fringe benefits, job security, physical surroundings, and safety. Certain environmental and motivational factors are predictors of job satisfaction. While Colvin (1998) shows that financial incentives will get people to do more of what they are doing, Silverthrone (1996) investigates motivation and managerial styles in the private and public sector. The results indicate that there is a little difference between the motivational needs of public and private sector employees, managers, and non-managers.
Locke and Lathan (1976) give a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience. Job satisfaction is a result of employee's perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. According to (Mitchell and Lasan, 1987), it is generally recognized in the organizational behaviour field that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude. While Luthan (1998) posited that there are three important dimensions to job satisfaction:
Job satisfaction of the librarian naturally depends on the economically, social and cultural conditions in a given country (Ebru, 1995). A librarian who can not get a sufficient wage will be faced with the problem of maintaining his or her family's life. This problem puts the librarian far from being satisfied. Especially the social facilities (transportation services, and consumer cooperatives -cash boxes) are sufficient because of the economic conditions. Low wages and lack of status and social security affect motivation. Job satisfaction cannot be talk of where there is absence of motivation. Job satisfaction of the librarian who has an important place in the information society will affect the quality of the service he renders. In this respect, the question of how the material and moral element affect the job satisfaction of the librarians gains importance (Ebru, 1995).
Job satisfaction is so important in that its absence often leads to lethargy and reduced organizational commitment (Levinson, 1997, Moser, 1997). Lack of job satisfaction is a predictor of quitting a job (Alexander, Litchtenstein and Hellmann, 1997; Jamal, 1997). Sometimes workers may quit from public to the private sector and vice versa. At the other times the movement is from one profession to another that is considered a greener pasture. This later is common in countries grappling with dwindling economy and its concomitant such as poor conditions of service and late payment of salaries (Nwagwu, 1997). In such countries, people tend to migrate to better and consistently paying jobs (Fafunwa, 1971). Explaining its nature some researcher (e.g. Armentor, Forsyth, 1995, Flanegan, Johnson and Berret, 1996; Kadushin, and Kulys, 1995) tend to agree that job satisfaction is essentially controlled by factors described in Adeyemo's (2000) perspectives as external to the worker. From this viewpoint satisfaction on a job might be motivated by the nature of the job, its pervasive social climate and extent to which workers peculiar needs are met. Working conditions that are similar to local and international standard (Osagbemi, 2000), and extent to which they resemble work conditions of other professions in the locality. Other inclusions are the availability of power and status, pay satisfaction, promotion opportunities, and task clarity (Bolarin, 1993; Gemenxhenandez, Max, Kosier, Paradiso and Robinson, 1997).
Other researchers (e.g. MacDonald, 1996; O'Toole, 1980) argue in favour of the control of job satisfaction by factors intrinsic to the workers. Their arguments are based on the idea that workers deliberately decide to find satisfaction in their jobs and perceive them as worthwhile.
Studies of job satisfaction and librarianship seem to consistently show there is a relationship between professional status and the job satisfaction. High levels of job satisfaction are observed in those professions that are of good standing in society. Age is one of the factors affecting job satisfaction. Different studies conducted show that older workers are more satisfied (Davis, 1988:100). Kose (1985) found a meaningful relationship between the age and job satisfaction; Hamshari (1983), age and professional experience (Delia 1979; Hamshari 1986), educational level (Well-Maker, 1985; Hamshari, 1986); level of wages (Vaugan and Dunn in Adeyemo, 1997); sex (D'elia 1979; Lynch and Verdin, 1983).
St. Lifer (1994) reports the results of a survey of librarians' perceptions of their jobs. These include compensation and benefits, advancement opportunities, and technological challenges. The result showed that salaries and benefits are related to job satisfaction. Horenstein (1993) reported on a study that examined the job satisfaction of academic librarians as it related to faculty status. The finding indicated that librarians with academic rank were more satisfied than non-faculty groups. Predictors of satisfaction included perceptions of participation and salary. Nkereuwen (1990) reviews theories on job satisfaction and evaluates their relevance to the work environment of libraries.
Paramer and East (1993) discuss previous job satisfaction research among Ohio academic library support staff using Paul E. Specter's job satisfaction survey. The 434 respondents indicated general satisfaction among females with less experience who worked in public services. Tregone (1993) tried to determine the levels of cooperation of media specialists and public librarians. A significant correlation was shown between the level of satisfaction and the type of library, although librarians in public libraries showed greater satisfaction.
Similarly, the result of some other studies have shown meaningful relations between job satisfaction and wages, management policy, working conditions, possibilities of promotion, gaining respect, the size of the organization and self development and achievement of the use of talents (Ergenc, 1982a; Sencer, 1982; Kose, 1985; Yincir, 1990). Philips (1994) studied the career attitudes of 109 master level librarians and the relationship between age, career satisfaction and career identity. His results indicate that over time librarians become more happy with their profession and more committed to their line of work.
A wide variety of definitions and measure of organizational commitment exist. Beckeri, Randal, and Riegel (1995) defined the term in a three dimensions:
To Northcraft and Neale (1996), commitment is an attitude reflecting an employee's loyalty to the organization, and an ongoing process through which organization members express their concern for the organization and its continued success and well being.
Organizational commitment is determined by a number of factor, including personal factors (e.g., age, tenure in the organization, disposition, internal or external control attributions); organizational factors (job design and the leadership style of one's supervisor); non-organizational factors (availability of alternatives). All these things affect subsequent commitment (Nortcraft and Neale, 1996).
Mowday, Porter, and Steer (1982) see commitment as attachment and loyalty. These authors describe three components of commitment:
A similar definition of commitment emphasizes the importance of behaviour in creating it. Salancik (1977) conceives commitment as a state of being in which an individual becomes bound by his actions and it is these actions that sustain his activities and involvement. From this definition, it can be inferred that three features of behaviour are important in binding individuals to act: visibility of acts, the extent to which the outcomes are irrevocable; and the degree to which the person undertakes the action voluntarily. To Salancik therefore, commitment can be increased and harnessed to obtain support for the organizational ends and interests through such things as participation in decision-making.
Based on the multidimensional nature of organizational commitment, there is growing support for a three-component model proposed by Meyer and Allen (1991). All three components have implications for the continuing participation of the individual in the organization. The three components are:
Affective Commitment: Psychological attachment to organization.
Continuance Commitment: Costs associated with leaving the organization.
Normative Commitment: Perceived obligation to remain with the organization.
Guest (1991) concludes that high organizational commitment is associated with lower turnover and absence, but there is no clear link to performance. It is probably wise not to expect too much from commitment as a means of making a direct and immediate impact on performance. It is not the same as motivation. Commitment is a broader concept and tends to withstand transitory aspects of an employee's job. It is possible to be dissatisfied with a particular feature of a job while retaining a reasonably high level of commitment to the organization as a whole. When creating a commitment strategy, Amstrong, 1999 asserts that "it is difficult to deny that it is desirable for management to have defined strategic goals and values. And it is equally desirable from management point of view for employees to behave in a way that support those strategies and values." Creating commitment includes communication, education, training programmes, and initiatives to increase involvement and ownership and the development of performance and reward management systems.
Studies on commitment have provided strong evidence that affective and normative commitment are positively related and continuance commitment is negatively connected with organizational outcomes such as performance and citizenship behaviour (Hackett, Bycio, and Handsdoff, 1994; Shore and Wayne, 1993). Based on this finding, it is important for library employers to identify librarians' commitment pattern and map out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organizational goals. Researchers (e.g. Mayer and Allen, 1997) have found that age was positively correlated with affective and normative commitment, but not to continuance commitment. Meyer and Allen (1991), in an exploratory and confirmatory analysis of factors that can significantly predict job satisfaction and organizational commitment among blue collar workers, reported that promotion, satisfaction, job characteristics, extrinsic and intrinsic exchange, as well as extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, were related to commitment.
Dornstein and Matalon (1998) describe eight variables that are relevant to organizational commitment. These are interesting work, coworker's attitudes towards the organization, organizational dependency, age, education, employment alternatives, attitude of family and friends. The variables explain 65% of the variance in organizational commitment. Glisson and Derrick in Adeyemo and Aremu (1999) in their study of 319 human service organization workers analyzed the effects of multiple predictors (job, organization, and worker characteristics) on satisfaction and commitment. They showed that skill variety and role ambiguity are best predictors of satisfaction, while leadership and the organization's age are the best predictor of commitment. Ellemer, Gilder, and Heuvel (1998) found that background variables as gender, level of education, or team size were not clearly related to three forms of commitment. Adeyemo (2000) reported a positive correlation between education and organizational commitment. Irving, Coleman, and Cooper (1997) found that age was not related to organizational commitment. Meyer and Allen (1984) earlier argued that age might be correlated with commitment by postulating that it serves as proxy for seniority that is associated with opportunity to better one's position in the work. On the issue of gender, Mathieu and Zajac (1990) reported its relationship to organizational commitment. Similarly, it was found by Irving, et, al. (1997) that the men in their sample had higher level of commitment than the women.
The following research questions were developed to guide the study.
This study used a descriptive survey design. The purpose of descriptive surveys, according to Ezeani (1998), is to collect detailed and factual information that describes an existing phenomenon.
The target population of the study were library personnel in all research and academic libraries in Oyo state, Nigeria. A census of five research and four academic libraries was taken. A total enumeration sampling technique was used to select 200 library personnel. The breakdown is as follows:
There were 200 participants. Of these, 82 (41%) were females; while 118 (59%) were males. Their age ranges from23-56 years, with a mean age of 39.5 years. The academic qualifications of the participants are:
A modified questionnaire tagged Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Commitment Scale (WMJSCS) was used for the collection of data on the study. The questionnaire was specifically designed to accomplish the objectives of the study. The first section collected information such as age, sex, experience, professional status, marital status, position, and so on. The second section contained the items, and was divided into three parts.
Part1. This measures motivation. It is a 15-item questionnaire using a Likert scale with responses ranging from Strongly Agree= SA; Agree = A; Disagree = D; and Strongly Disagree = SD. The items were adapted from Work Motivation Behaviour Scale of the Akinboye's 2001 Executive Behaviour Battery. The modification yielded an r = 0.74 Cronbach Alpha.
Part 2. The second part of the instrument contains items that measure library personnel's job satisfaction. It is a 5-point Likert scale: Very Dissatisfied = VD; Dissatisfied = D; Undecided = U; Satisfied = S; and Very Satisfied = VS. Items in this section were adapted from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire by Weiss (1967).
Part 3. This part contains fifteen items that measure organizational commitment, using a Likert scale of four points: Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Items were adapted from organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ) by Mooday, Steer, and Porter (1979). The overall reliability co-efficient of the instrument yielded an r = 0.83 cronbach alpha.
The researcher travelled to all nine libraries in the study and administered the instrument to library personnel after the approval of their management. Following the instructions on the instrument, the questionnaires were filled and returned.
Descriptive statistics, Pearson Multiple Correlation, and Multiple classification methods with t-test were employed to analyse the collected data.
The results of the analysis on the study are presented as follows:
Research Question 1. What is the relationship between work motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of library personnel?
Table 1: Mean, Standard Deviation, and Multiple Correlation Matrix of Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Commitment.
The result in table 1 above reveals a positive correlation between work motivation and job satisfaction with coefficient value of r =.4056. Motivation also correlated with organizational commitment, but the correlation was negative with coefficient value r = -.1767.
Research Question 2: What is the significant difference in the work motivation of professional and non-professional library personnel?
Table 2: Work Motivation of Professional and Non-Professional Library Personnel
The result in table 2 above shows that the t-cal = 0. 89 > lesser than the t-tab 1.96 at 198 degrees of freedom at the 0.05 level. This indicates that no significant difference was observed in the work motivation of the professional and non-professional library personnel.
Research Question 3: What is the difference in the job satisfaction of the library personnel in academic and research libraries?
Table 3: Job Satisfaction of Library Personnel in Academic and Rresearch Libraries.
The result in table 3 shows that no difference exists in the job satisfaction of the library personnel in academic and research libraries. This was shown with the t. cal.1.66> t.tab 1.96 at 0.05 level and 198 degrees of freedom.
Research Question 4: What is the relationship between years of experience and commitment of the library personnel?
Table 4: Multiple Classification Analysis of the Years of Experience and Organizational Commitment of the Library personnel
In table 4 above, the results reveal that years of experience have no relationship withorganizational commitment. This is shown in the multiple regressions (R) of .05 and multiple correlations R Square of .002, which indicate 2% of the total correlation, and Eta and Beta value of .04.
The findings of this study reveal that a correlation exists between perceived motivation, job satisfaction, and commitment, although correlation between motivation and commitment was negative. No difference was observed in the perceived motivation of professional and non-professional library personnel. Moreover, findings also show that differences exist in the job satisfaction of library personnel in academic and research libraries, and that no relationship exists in the organizational commitment of library personnel based on their years of experience.
The correlation that exists in this study among perceived work motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment corresponds with (Brown and Shepherd, 1997) who reported that motivation improves workers' performance and job satisfaction. The result also agrees with Chess (1994), reported that certain motivational factors contribute to the prediction of job satisfaction. However, negative correlation between organizational commitment and work motivation as reported in this study may be a result of the fact librarians are not highly motivated by their deeply held values and beliefs regarding the development of a shared vision as put forward by Brown and Shepherd (1997). Tang and LiPing (1999) report that a relationship exists between job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and Woer (1998) finds that organizational commitment relates to job satisfaction, which both support this result. Furthermore, Stokes, Riger, and Sullivan's (1995) report that perceived motivation relates to job satisfaction, commitment, and even intention to stay with the firm corroborates this present result.
The second result obtained on this study was that no significant difference was observed in the perceived work motivation of professional and non-professional library personnel. Williams in Nwagu (1997) reported that motivation potential is linked to five core characteristics that affect three psychological states essential to internal work motivation and positive work outcom. That idea complements the present finding. Similarly, the finding by Colvin (1998) that financial incentives increase productivity, corroborates this result. Professional and non-professional library personnel have the same perceived work motivation if they are given the work environment and incentives that they need and deserve. The issue of professionalism in librarianship is a very important one, but non-professional library employees are essential to library operations and their motivation and commitment are also essential. Many libraries, therefore, take the same approach to motivation for all of their employees, irrespective of status and qualifications. Hence, the non significant difference in their perception of work motivation is probably connected with this issue.
The fact that no relationship was observed between the organizational commitment of the library personnel and their years of experience, contradict some previous findings of studies. For instance Irving, Coleman, and Meyer (1994) suggest that job experience early in one's career plays a prominent role in the development of commitment. It is commonly felt that experience increases the level of commitment of workers in an organization, and this may be the case under normal circumstances. The result obtained in this study may be due to particular local situations.
The findings of this study have pointed out some salient issues in the field of librarianship. It is imperative for library management to meet the demands of their personnel to strengthen their motivation, satisfaction, and commitment to minimize turnover. Governments and library management should concentrate on improving the conditions for library personnel. One crucial area is on-the-job training to cope with the integration of information technology into library practices.
Career survival would depends on career resilience (Casio in Sinclair et al. 2005) and pragmatic adjustment to change (Borgen, in Adeyemo, 2000). Librarians and library staff must readily re-invent themselves and take responsibility for managing their careers with support from employers. Satisfaction might be found in "sacrificial labour," otherwise referred to as labour of love by (McDonald, 1996). Uppermost in our minds should be the quest for self-actualization described by Maslow.
Library personnel must acknowledge that mental health is better anchored in intrinsic motivational factors within one's control. The need to assume responsibility for one's career, especially in a depressed economy, cannot be overemphasized (Heinz, 1987). Attainment of job satisfaction among library personnel through value clarification, personal problem solving, and a creative approach are insightful and intrinsic motivational approaches that are recommended in this study.
It is important to note some limitations of this study. First, the study is correlational and as such we cannot assume any causal relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work motivation. Second, the samples used for this study are library personnel in academic and research libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. One cannot generalize findings to other states of the federation. Future researchers may focus on the limitations and work improving the generality of the results.
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