Library Philosophy and Practice 2012
Information Needs & Information Seeking Behaviour of Faculty Members of CCS University, Meerut: A Case Study
Library & Information Centre,
Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission,
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India,
CIPL Campus, Rajnagar, Sector-23, Ghaziabad-UP
This article identifies trends among faculty members at CCS University in utilizing electronic information resources to develop their teaching, research and personal knowledge. The University Library subscribes to 8000 specialized electronic databases. In addition, the Library provides all faculty members with free access to its electronic resources through the University Network. A questionnaire distributed to all faculty members (around 55) during the academic year 2009–2010. Number of questionnaire distributed 55 out of which 45 responded consider for analysis. Revealed that the data bases and e-resources provided by the University were well utilized by the entire faculty, although they are making a difference to the work of some of the University's faculty members. The University Library needs to under take a review to identify other databases that may be needed, to promote the use of e-resources in teaching and learning, and to develop the search skills of faculty and students.
Key Words- E-Journals, Electronic Information Sources, E-books, Information Seeking behavior, Subject gateway.
Academic libraries have for centuries played critically-important roles in supporting research in all subjects and disciplines within their host universities and colleges. But the last decade has brought a sea-change in relationships between researchers and libraries. Technological developments and the availability of information resources online have changed how research is done, and also the services that academic libraries provide to their research communities. Both researchers and librarians have welcomed the benefits these changes have brought, adapting rapidly to them and seeking to exploit their potential to the full. And they both look forward to further change in the coming years. With new technological developments and innovations come new challenges and new expectations.
Electronic Information Resources are now playing a central role in higher education. University faculty members and students in many countries are working regularly with Internet resources and search engines, and using e-mail as a normal form of communication. These electronic information resources are useful and important for faculty members, sometimes more so than for students. Faculty members may use e-resources in many ways, for example as:
1.1. Information needs and information literacy:
Information literacy is an important issue in universities in the Indian country as much as in universities and educational institutions all over the world.
The basic objectives for teaching are that the student should:
I. Determine the kind and quantity of information needed;
II. Access the necessary information effectively;
III. Evaluate information and its sources critically;
IV. Use information successfully to accomplish a specific purpose.
Information literacy enables individuals to recognize not only when we need information, but also when different kinds of information are needed. It provides us with methods to cope with the huge quantity of information coming from all directions, through all kinds of e-resources, by giving us the ability and the skills to know where to search and locate information effectively and efficiently. Therefore, we can assume that information literacy includes the technological skills that are needed to use university libraries and other services as gateways to the information required by faculty members and their students. Information literacy also enables us to analyze and evaluate the information we locate and to use it effectively. Therefore it gives us the ability and confidence to use information to fulfill our duties as researchers or to make decisions at any administrative level or to create new products. We can thus expand the definition of the information literate person to describe one who:
(Webber & Johnstone 2003);
1.2. Raja Mahendra Pratap Library, CCS University, Meerut.
Ch. Charan Singh University (Formerly Meerut University) Library was established in 1968 to serve the academic community of the university in particular and this region of the state in general. With the introduction of teaching of M.Phil. And research programmes in 1969, the library was temporarily moved in L.L.R.M Medical College Campus. A few buildings were built in 1970 at the university campus and the library was housed in room No. 106 on the ground floor of the Institute of Advanced Studies. The designing of the library building was planned in consultation with the renowned architect and library experts. Construction of the library was started in 1970 and it was formally declared open by the first Chancellor, Dr Gopal Reddy on 11th January1972. The shoebox type library building is designed on modular pattern. Its countless louvers, gentle ramps and full-length glass panels on all sides add to its beauty. It provides 2655.38 sq. meters of floor area spread over four floors. The Library is now known as Raja Mahendra Pratap Library.
2. Review Of Literature:
Taha, Ahmed (2007) conducted the study under the title " Networked e-information services to support the e-learning process at UAE university." The main objective of the study was to focus on how the e-library interoperates with the e-learning process within the academic computing environment (ACE) at the United Emirates University (UAEU). The study adopted the questionnaire survey and sequel research (2004-2005), and personal interviews methodology for the collection of data. The main findings were (1) the instructors have viewed e-learning as a sound instructional tool and an evolving genre capable of providing more than just textual information (2) the e-library support e-learning courses with a bundle of networked e-information services such as development of course-related electronic collections, virtual reference help, CAS,SDI etc (3) E-literacy was found to play an essential role in fostering adoption and acceptance of e-learning.
Liew, Chern Li (2006) conducted the study under the title. "Beyond the Notes: A Quarantine study of the information seeking behavior of ethnomusicologists". The main objectives were (1) where do academic ethnomusicologists seek answers to meet their information needs? What kinds of information do they seek? Where do they refer their students for access to information? (2) What kinds of libraries and information services do academic ethnomusicologists use? What kinds of services do they use. (3) How well are these services meeting their information needs? What are one barrier they face in seeking information. The study was based on interviews with fourteen ethnomusicologists attached to these institutions. The key findings were (1) The majority of the search episodes were identified a formal search followed by undirected viewing (2) all ethnomusicologists used the academic library at their institution as a major source of information (3) A majority of the participates also used the CD collection in public libraries (4) The ethnomusicologists interviewed also established personal collections and deposited their won materials or recordings their field work into archival institutions. (5) All respondents used library catalogues to search the availability and the location of the items. (6) Respondents also reported subscribing to associations (7) All the respondent were e-mail users. (8) Google and Alta vista were found useful as the first proof of their information searching. (9) Consulting with others either to answer specifies question or for assistance when seeking general information or identifying sources of information relevant to their teaching or research. (10) The feelings associated with the various stages and activities were analyzed according to kuhlthau's stage process mode. (11) The barriers were luck of material's bibliographic control, language, copyright, cost and availability of materials.
Kufallkar, Chitra-Rekha and Mahakulkar, Vaishali (2003) Conducted the study under the title "A study of Information seeking behavior of the user in PG Departments of Bio-chemistry and Microbiology, Nagpur University "The Objectives of the study were : (1) to examine the purpose of the users visit to the departmental libraries (2) to ascertain the dependence the user son other Departmental libraries (3) to check the relative use of Bibliographical sources and tools in the information search (4) Identifying the pretence of invisible college in the information seeding behavior of the users (5) to ascertain the dependence of the users on informal modes of communication and their changing preferences. Census survey method, Questionnaire, Interview and observation were employed for primary data collection. The main findings were (1) the purpose of users visit to the departmental libraries are different as per their academic ranks and categories i.e. to keep update with the current information, for study, for preparing lectures etc. (2) users mostly depend on their departmental libraries but in some cases, occasionally they visit our libraries to satisfy their information needs (3) finding clearly reveals that, use of formal traditional tools like catalogues, indexes etc. and tertiary sources like bibliographers are hardly noticed, since the department is well equipped in collection and has open access the users preface and refer primary and secondary directly (4) there is a clear indicate of 'invisible college' and user dependence is more on in formal modes of communication, than the formal, though, the sample study of the citation of thesis of relent years do not indicate this trend. Changing preference is more visible in the survey and observation.
3. Objectives of the study:
The specific objectives of the study are:-
1. To find out the information barriers encounter by them.
2. To identify the various sources of information used by them.
3. To study the methodologies adapted by them for locality information.
4. To determine the use of library and libraries for information needs to be satisfied.
5. To identify the purpose of seeking information nature and type of information required by social scientists.
6. To trace out the purpose of information search.
7. To find out the methods used by libraries in getting the faculty aware of the availability of information products and services.
Questionnaire method has been followed for the survey. In consist of 55 questionnaire designed, keeping in view the objectives of the case study. The question are partially objectives and partially descriptive. Questionnaire were distributed to faculty of CCS University. Questionnaire were collected after allowing proper time. Number of questionnaire distributed 55 out of which 45 responded consider for analysis. Care was taken to collect questionnaires to get good sample of 45. Personal interviews were also conducted with some of the simple to get clear picture of data.
4.1. Simple Designs:
A major objectives for the CCS University survey was that to included all primary clientele initially the user populations were defined as, library members, faculty and professors.
To ensure external vascular without incurring the time & cost to interview all members that adequately represents the entire population & form which conclusion about the sample may be drawn with a know level of reliability. The simplest of these protocols is simple random sampling, a type of probability in which each subject has an equal & known chance of inclusion, & the selection of one case do not influence the selection of another.
5. Data Analysis And Interpretation:
Although it is not our intension to discuss the data collected in detail, since they relate to a specific university, it might be insightful to consider a few representative examples of both information collected and action plans.
Table 1 shows that majority of users 36(80%) respondents are lectures, 3(6.6%) of the users are professor, 5(11.1%) of the users are reader, 1(2.2%) of the users respondents are of the other categories.
Table – 1. Designation
5.2. Sources of information generally used:
Table 2 shows that majority of users 28(62.2%) respondents are discussion with colleges, 19(42.2%) of the users used to consultant supervisor, 8(17.7%) of the users use to Review, 13(28.8%) of the users use to abstracting journals, 9(20%) of the users use to indexing journals, 2(4.4%) of the users use to library journals.
Table – 2. Sources of information generally used
Fig.2. Sources of information generally used
5.3. Frequency of use of internet:
Table 3 shows that majority of users 33(73.3%) respondents are daily, 3(6.6%) of the users are fortnight, 4(8.8%) of the users are month, 2(4.4%) of the users are rarely, 3(6.6%) of the users are at least once a weak.
Table –3. Frequency of use of internet
Fig.3. Frequency of use of internet
5.4. Preferred language of reading material:
Table 4 Indicates that majority of users 10(22.2%) of the users are used reading material Hindi, 20(44.4%) of the users are used reading material English and 15(33.3%) of the users are used both reading material.
Table – 4. Preferred language of reading material
Fig.4. Preferred language of reading material
5.5. Purpose of using Internet:
Table 5 shows that mostly users 40(88.8%) used to education, 14(31.1%) users used to entertainment, 17(37.7%) users used to newspaper, 6(13.3%) users used to health, 16(35.5%) users used to sport 1(2.2%) users used to chatting.
Table – 5. Purpose of using Internet
Fig.5. Purpose of using Internet
5.6. Problem of Information Seeking:
Table 6 indicates that majority of 17(37.7%) users use to material is not available, 16 (35.5%) of the users use to incomplete information material, 28(62.2%) with a lack of time, 10(22.2%) with a information is to vast, 9(20%) of them faced some of information materials are old, 3(6.6%) of them faced understanding of English language, 4(8.8%) users faced problem in lack of knowledge in using the library, and every faculty members do not faced problem of do not know to use the catalogue.
Table – 6. Problem of Information Seeking
5.7. Use the Internet:
Table 7 Shows that majority of users 43(95%) are use to internet, 2(4.4%) of the users do not use the internet.
Table – 7. Use the Internet
Fig.7. Use the Internet
5.8. Search Engine mostly use:
Table 8 shows that majority of users 42 (93.3%) use the google.com, 27(60%) of the users use the yahoo.com, 1 (2.2%) of the users used the excite.com, 6 (13.3%) of the users use the M.S.N.com, 3(6.6%) of the users use the Attavista.com and 45(100%) are not use to Lycos.com.
Table – 8. Search Engine mostly use
Fig.8. Search Engine mostly use
5.9. Types of Material:
Table 9 indicates that majority of users 40(88.8%) use the text book material, 18(40%) of the users use to periodicals, 31(68.8%) of the users use to Newspaper, 6(13.3%) of the users age to Exhibitions, 31(68.8%) of the users use to Reference books, 8(17.7%) of the users use to pamphlets, 28(62.2%) of the users use to general book, 8(17.7%) of the users use to patent, 15(33.3%) of the users use to Thesis /Research report and (2.2%) use to magazine.
Table – 9. Types of Material
Fig.9. Types of Material
5.10. Purpose of Information Seeking:
Table 10 Indicates that majority of users 29(64.4%) respondents are for preparing class lectures, 35(77.7%) of the users are for updating knowledge, 18(40%) of the users are for doing research work, 3(13.3%) of the users are for guiding researchers, 22(42.8%) of the users are general knowledge, 9(20%) of the users are services or jobs requirements, 10(22.2%) of the users are teaching preparing or lecturing, 6(13.3%) of the users are reading purpose only, 7(15.5%) of the users are support researching.
Table – 10. Purpose of Information Seeking
Fig. 10. Purpose of information seeking
5.11. Types of Information Used:
Table 11 shows that 18(40%) of the faculty member used to factual information, 16(35.5%) of the faculty member used to conceptual information, 3(6.6%) of the faculty number used to retrospective information, 8(17.7%) of the faculty members used to socio-economic information.
Table – 11. Types of Information Used
Fig.11. Types of information used
5.12. Use of electronic information resources:
Table 12 indicates that majority of users 11(24%) use to e-journals, 12(26.6%) users use to e-books, 3(6.6%) users use to e-thesis, 40(88.8%) users use to E-mail, 13(28.8%) users use to on line database, 4(8.8%) users use to CD-ROM database.
Table – 12. Use of electronic information resources
Fig.12. Use of electronic information resources
5.13. Satisfaction about library sources & Services:
Table 13 shows that 23(51.1%) of the users are fully satisfaction, 16(35.5%) of the users are partially satisfaction, 5(11.1%) of the users are least satisfaction and 1(2.2%) users are not satisfied.
Table – 13. Satisfaction about library sources & Services
Fig.13. Satisfaction about library sources & Services
5.14. Preferred format of information resources:
Table 14 shows that 31 (77.5%) of the users are used print format of information resources, 17(37.7%) users prefer electronic format, 22(48.8%) users prefer Audio/Video format.
Table – 14. Preferred format of information resources
Fig.14. Preferred format of information resources
5.15. Use of e-mail for communication:
Table 15 shows that majority of users 43(95.5%) are used to e-mail for communication and 2(4.4) of users are not used e-mail for communication.
Table – 15. Use of e-mail for communication
Fig.15. Use of e-mail for communication:
5.16. How often use it:
Table 16 shows that 27(60%) of the users are frequently, 4(8.8%) of the users are sometimes, 14(31.1%) of the users are Rarely use it.
Table – 16. How often use it
6. Findings, Suggestion And Conclusion:
Although it is not may our intention to discuss the data collected in detail, since they related to an academic library, it might be insightful to consider a few representation example of both information collected and action plans.
· The majority of users (73.3%) use the internet daily, rarely users use the internet and at least once a weak (8.6%) users use the internet.
· All users are satisfied with library sources and services.
· All users are know that our library is computerized.
· All users are satisfied with internet facilities.
· The majority of respondents and reading materials used maximum (91.1%) minimum (57.7%).
· The majority of respondents purpose of information seeking behavior maximum (77.7%) minimum (6.6%).
· The majority of respondents types of information used maximum (40%) minimum (6.6%).
· The majority of respondents electronic information resources maximum (88.8%) minimum (6.6%).
· The majority of respondents purpose use the internet maximum (88.8%) minimum (2.2%).
The present study puts forward the various suggestions to be incomplete for the improvement of collections and services provided by the CCS University, Meerut.
· The users should be aware for the service of indexing, abstracting, bibliographic, CD-ROM search.
· The library collection should be increase.
· The library professional should be trained to help the user.
· The makes and apply new rules about the internet lab.
· New edition of books should be added.
· The timing of library services should be extended to round the clock.
· Reprographic service should also be provided.
· Libraries should compile bibliography for teachers.
The successful operation of any library depends to a large extent or the choice of library collections. The choice of the collection should meet the need and requirements of the end users. Consequently, librarians must be aware of how the faculty numbers seek information. The first three preferences given by the faculty for seeking information are textbooks, periodicals and newspapers. It is also observed that the majority of faculty members sought information for preparing lectures, keeping up to date knowledge and research work. Faculty members used several methods to seek information, but they prefer to consult a knowledgeable person in the field. English and Sanskrit and Hindi language is used by them from reading materials. In reality, it was found that they use the internet strongly at home for education. E-mail is specifically used for communication because it saves time and money. ERIC is used by faculty members, as it is an education database which is popular and easy to use the problems they faced while seeking information are incomplete information, lack of information and time, etc.
Although users have expressed sentiment concerning augmentation of periodicals available, it is also suggested to acquire printed journals and electronic journals in both English and Hindi languages. Hence, it is suggested that advanced training for users at different levels should be started. Content of training programs should be (a) Basic introduction to library services and facilities (b) using OPAC; (c) using the internet; (d) using online and CD-ROM databases; (e) Using electronic journals; (f) introducing references books; (g) introducing audio/video materials; and using indexes and abstracts.
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