In the summer of 2000 I traveled to Confucius hometown, Qu Fu,
Province of China. In this small town, three most famous
include Confucius Temple, Confucius Family Complex, and Confucius
Cemetory. It is such an interesting experience to tour places
this and revisit the long history of Chinese intellectual and social
The main street of Qu Fu. I took the long distance bus from Qi
Dao city to arrive Qu Fu after nearly 5 hours driving. I checked
in a hotel about two blocks away from here to the right side of the
for $35 per night.
1. I am in front of the
old city gate. The stone tablet
2. Here is the road that connects the
the name of the town, Qu Fu. This place is about two previous and next pictures.
blocks away from my hotel.
1. Confucius Temple
3. The grand entrance of Confucius Temple.
8. More stone tablets. The cracks were caused by the same reason
9. An imperial decree is ingraved in this stone tablet 10. A sacred stone tablet.
tablet when the Chinese emperor visited the place
in the late 19th century.
15. The stone rail on the side of the Hall of Great
sign here is that the hole for water release is used to hold the mop.
2. Confucius Family Complex
piece of stone is made in a shape of washing board with several
curves, which was a major
washing tool in the old time. But the function of this stone board is a tool of punishment of women
in the Confucius family. Women were to kneel down on this board for long hours. In contemporary
Chinese society, "to kneel over a washing board" carries the meaning of being punished inside the
household, especially for husbands. It looks like it is women's vengence now!
24. This is a performing procession inside Cconfucius
Family complex to show how the traditional
ritual ceromony used to be carried out.
25. Here shows the emperor
leading the Confucius ritual to pay respect to the Heaven. The
playing the emperor is in yellow robe.
In all 3 photos actors are in Manchu dress, indicating the time period to be in the Qing Dynasty, 1600-1911. It cost 5 Chinese Yuan to get
in this court yard to watch the show.
3. Confucius Family Cemetery
26. This is the entrance gate to the Confucius
Cemetery. It took me about 25 minutes on a tricycle from my hotel
to the place.
The picture was taken by the tricycle man, who also waited for me at the gate of the cemetery for nearly 2 hours in order to take me back.
I paid him 15 Chinese Yuan (ca. $2), already twice the regular price.
27 & 28. On my way to the cemetery, I stopped in this open field
31 & 32. Two sacred animals of this kind guard the entrance to
33. Two officials, one intellectual
and another martial, are standing on guard beyond the animal position.
34 & 35. The intellectual official on the
with a tablet, the symbol of imperial knowledge, and
the martial offical on the right holding a sword.
36 & 37. More animals and
gates protect the entrance to Confucius
tomb. The photo on the
right show Confucius tomb to the very right end. The hut further was built for Confucius
students to stay mourning for months.
38 & 39. Confucius Tomb. The legend
that when the tomb stone was made to have Confucius
name and title carved on, it said "The Great Intelelctual King and Our Saint Ancestor." Imperial official
did not like the idea and were worried addressing Confucius "King." So when the tablet was erected,
the front stone rail was positioned higher deliberately to fence part of the character "wang" meaning
"king" so it is not seen in full as "king." Without getting very close, the last character, missing one
horizen stroke, is only seen as "gan," meaning "dry" or "branch." The were trying to be politically correct.
40 & 41.
Leaving Confucius Tomb, I went on to
tour the entire cemetery, which took me over two
hours on foot. The photo on the right is the 73rd generation of Confucius family member. The rule
of burial is that only male members can be buried in the cemetery. Neither daughters nor duaghter-
in-laws are allowed to be buried here. The only exception is a daughter of the emperor who married
a Confucius member.
42. This is the tomb of Kong Lingyi
(1872-1919), who was the Prime Minister,
Foreign Minister, and
tax tsar of the early Nationalist government. His son Kong Dequan, who is in his early 80s, is still
alive in Taiwan.
43 & 44. Some of the tombs
are decorated better than others,
with paved road, stone pillars,
and animal guards.