The materials on this page are intended for use by students enrolled in ANTH 329 North American Indians. This page and its references are periodically up-dated.
Gill 1982: 16-20, 45-50, 59-62, 71-78, 91-92, 133-138 and 142-150
Oswalt and Neely 1999:292-327
Hopi: Songs from the Fourth World.
The primary focus of this section will be on the Hopi, a Pueblo people of Arizona and the Southwest culture area. Additional references will also be made to the Acoma and Zuni Pueblo peoples. While used to refer to themselves as a people, the word "hopi" also holds one of the keys to understanding Hopi culture. It entails the idealized notions of "cooperation, self-effacing, and non-aggression."
The Southwest culture area covers the southern areas of Utah and Colorado in the north, the entirety of Arizona and New Mexico, and the northern area of Mexico in the south.
The Pueblo tribes, such as the Hopi, Zuni and Acoma, live in rather densely-populated, sedentary villages, cultivating among other crops, maize and beans. They are known for their religious societies, such as the Kachinas, and their ceremonial chambers, kivas. The focus of the masked dances is on the fertility of their crops. Hopi culture can be characterized by its resiliency and continuity through time, clinging to traditional cultural expressions in the face of assimilation forces brought on by the Spanish and later Anglo societies.
Key Concepts and Terms
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