Yellow Wolf (Paxaat Tamkikeechet, Five Times Looking Through (boyhood name), Ineechekoostin (inherited name, adolescent name) Hemene Maqs maqs, Heinmot Hix hix or White Thunder) on left
Yellow Wolf was born in 1856 in the Wallowa Valley to Sikemse Kunnin (Sikem Ciicqan ?) meaning "Horse Blanket" and Yiyik Wasumwahm (Swans Lighting on Water) or Chicamapoo, also "Old Jean," who was a sister (first cousin) to Young Joseph. Yellow Wolf spent most of his early years around the Wallowa Valley, but also spent some time just east of Lapwai, Idaho.
Yellow Wolf took a prominent role in the Nez Perce War of 1877, taking part in every battle during the campaign. He chose not to surrender with Young Joseph at Snake Creek, but instead chose to escape to Sitting Bull's camp of exiled Hunkpapa Sioux in Canada.
He eventually returned to Idaho, where he was arrested and sent to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Yellow Wolf was then relocated permanently to the Colville Reservation, upon returning from Oklahoma in 1885. To supplement their gathering activities, many went to the hop picking grounds in the Yakama Valley; it was during one of these visits that Yellow Wolf became acquainted with L.V. McWhorter. Together, with the help of other important informants on Nez Perce culture and history they documented the Nez Perce War of 1877 , as well as other events and practices from the aboriginal perspective. Yellow Wolf died on August 21, 1935 at Nespelem, Washington.
Image: Yellow Wolf (left) and Peo peo Tholekt (right). Date unknown
return to Conflict of 1877