Shóotaachi "hello, how are you doing?"  -  Ítchik "good,"  Báape itchcimaachasschk "today is a very good day,"   Ahókaash "thank you,"    Diiawákaawik "I'll see you later" (Crow - Apsáalooke of Montana)

Al! Qhest s’laqht   “hello, welcome my friend”  Aa! Kúts’chinm?    “hello, how are you doing?” Limlemtsh “thank you”  (Coeur d'Alene - Schitsu'umsh of Idaho)

Ta ‛c léeheyn “a general greetings” Ta ‛c méeywi “good morning”  Ta ‛c haláxp “good afternoon”  Qe ‛ci ‛yéw ‛yew “thank you”  (Nez Perce - Nimíipuu of Idaho)

there were over 500 distinct Indigenous Tribes in North America at the time of the arrival of Columbus in 1492



 An introduction to the Indigenous Peoples of this region:

the Waters of Two Distinct Rivers and their Confluence Today


Rodney Frey, Professor of Ethnography


One River: Contact History with Euro-Americans:

1. Diseases - smallpox  and other infectious diseases of which there were no immunities -  1750s-1850s

2. War - 1800s to 1880s. 

Example of Steptoe Battle and Col. George Wright and Hangman Creek  -  1858

2. Christian Missionaries and Boarding Schools  - 1840s - 1930s

4. Treaties and Reservations - 1850s - 1870s  

Example of the Coeur d'Alene Executive Order in 1889, and went from 6 million acres, to 345,000 and after Allotment in 1907, to 70,000 acres.   



Another River: the Continuity of Indigenous Peoples:

Nevertheless, the cultures and societies of Indigenous Peoples today remains strong and sovereign. 

Reflected in their economic development, self-governance, cultural vitality, and the

Path of the Wheel, with its many Spokes and single Hub.

Lives of Tom and Susie Yellowtail (Crow - Apsáalooke of Montana)



Akbaatatdía - "Creator of all things first" (Crow - Apsáalooke),    Amotqn - “the one who sits at the head mountain” (Coeur d'Alene - Schitsu'umsh),   Haniyaẁá∙t haníˑ “Creator” (Nez Perce - Nimíipuu)

Titwa-tityá-ya - “Animal-First Peoples” (Spirit Peoples) 


Salmon Always Goes Up River

Rabbit and Jack Rabbit

Four Smokes