Program in ecology  I offer an undergraduate course in introductory general ecology for sophomore level students, a graduate course in physiological plant ecology, and a graduate course in restoration ecology. I have developed extensive computer-aided, multimedia, instructional modules to teach these courses. The use of computer-aided education, including interactive multimedia lessons and modules for independent learning, provides students with a enhanced in-class lectures and the opportunity to extend learning beyond the classroom. Each course has an companion course on internet from which students can access course materials and information at their convenience. Further enhancements to the courses on internet will soon extend the studentís opportunities for learning beyond the classroom.


There are three courses available on internet, which are currently used as companion modules to the class. All class materials, e.g. syllabus, handouts, articles, sample examinations, etc., are available to students. To view these courses on internet, select from the list below. The course, Plant Autecology, is the major course in plant physiological ecology.

Ecology ... introduction to ecology
Ecology Interactive ... guided independent learning in ecology
Plant Autecology / Ecophysiology plants response to the environment
World Biomes ... a survey of Earth


University of Idaho Administration Building Because the University of Idaho and Washington State University (8 miles west of Moscow, Idaho) can coordinate courses and facilities for graduate study in plant ecophysiology, graduate students have the opportunity to benefit from a greater variety of courses, facilities, and faculty than exist at either university alone. Thus, graduate programs can be designed to encompass faculty, courses, and facilities from both schools. This complimentary situation provides students with unique opportunities for a comprehensive program in plant ecophysiology.



Forestry Building in JulyThe College Natural Resources offers graduates a wide variety of programs and courses in ecology and natural resources. These programs and courses are augmented by opportunities in the College of Life Sciences and at Washington State University.

Listed below is a selection of courses that can comprise a graduate course program in plant ecophysiology. A complete listing of courses at the University of Idaho and the degree requirements for the M.S. and the Ph.D. programs are available online through the Graduate Programs section.


Ecophysiology and related fields
Plant Autecology. Adaptations of individual species in rangeland and forest communities; emphasizing morphological and physiological mechanisms that influence plant establishment, below- and above-ground productivity, plant competition, and grazing sensitivity. Two days of field trips. [Range ID560 / WSU NATRS 524, 3 credits, prerequisites: Range 221, Bot 311 or permission].


Experimental Plant Ecology. Laboratory course on techniques in plant physiological ecology. [Range WS525, 3 credits, WSU NATRS 525].


Physiological Ecology. Physiological adaptations to various environmental and habitat conditions and their ecologic consequences. Two lectures and one 3-hour lab a week. [Bot 539, 3 credits, prerequisites: Bot J432/J530, 311 recommended].


Plant Environmental Biophysics [Bot WS435, 2 credits, WSU Soils 414].


Plant Environmental Biophysics Lab [Bot WS436, 1 credit, WSU Soils 415].


Stress Physiology of Plants [Bot WS517 / J417/J517, 3 credits].


Plant Physiology
Crop Physiology. Application of physiology to crop management. [PlSc 401, 3 credits, prerequisites include Bot 311].


Experimental Methods in Plant Physiology. [Bot WS505 / WSU Bot 504, 3 credits].


Photosynthesis, Photorespiration, and Plant Productivity [Bot WS518 / WSU Bot 518, 3 credits].


Plant Growth Substances [Bot 512, 3 credits].


Plant Physiology. Functions of plant growth and development. [Bot 311, 3 credits, prerequisites: Biol 203 and organic chemistry].


Plant Physiology Lab. Two 3-hour labs a week. [Bot 312, 2 credits, prerequisites or co-requisites: Bot 311].


Tree Physiology. Fundamental physiological processes with emphasis on those unique to woody perennial plants. [For 432 / PlSc 432, 3 credits, prerequisites: Bot 311 or permission].


Conservation Biology. Patterns of biological diversity; factors producing changes in diversity; values of diversity; management principles applied to small populations, protected areas, landscape linkages, biotic integrity, restoration, legal issues, and funding sources. [WLF 440, 2 credits, prerequisite: permission].


General Ecology. Basic ecological principles and processes affecting the nature and occurrence of populations, communities, and biomes. Three 1-day (Saturday) field trips. [Biol 331, 3 credits, prerequisites: Biol 201, Math 140, and Biol 202 or 203].


Evolutionary Ecology. [WLF WS548 / WSU Zool 548, 3 credit].


Forest Ecosystem Processes. Chemical, physical, and physiological processes that determine how trees and forests function; emphasis on carbon budgets, productivity, consequences of forest management, and global climate change. One field trip. [For 330/430, 3 credits, prerequisites: Soils 205 or permission].


Forest Community Ecology. Principles of synecology related to vegetation classification and interpretation of structural and compositional change in communities following disturbance; practice in plant association/habitat type delineation as applied in western U.S. Accelerated first nine wks; eight lec periods and four 8-hour field trips. [For 423, 1 credit, prerequisites: For 221, Bot 241].


Field Ecology [Bot WS537 / WSU Bot 463, 2 credits].


Field Studies in Tropical Ecology and Dendrology. Extensive three-week field course in the tropics; emphasis on primary and secondary vegetation types, land-use problems, utilization of pantropical trees. Graded Pass/Fail. Additional projects/assignments required for graduate credit. [For J496/J596, 3 credits, prerequisites: For J420/J520 and permission].


Fire Ecology. Fire-related ecology of plant and animal species in wildlands; effects of fire occurrence and suppression on physical environment, landscapes, and processes in both natural and managed ecosystems. Two days of field trips. [Range 526 / For 526, 3 credits, prerequisite: general ecology course].


Landscape Ecology of Forests and Rangelands. Ecological relationships of biotic communities in heterogeneous environments, spatial and temporal patterns, importance of landscapes in maintenance of ecosystem diversity and function. One 2-hour discussion a week based on extensive reading of current literature. Independent study project and instructor permission required for 3 credits. [Range 527, 2-3 credits, prerequisite: upper-division plant or animal ecology].


Plant Ecology. General ecologic concepts and theory applied to plant populations and communities; intro to methods in plant ecology. Credit earned in Bot 530 by preparation of critical review of specific ecologic problem. Two lectures and one 3-hour lab a week; three 1-day field trips. [Bot J432/J530, 3 credits, prerequisites: Biol 203, 331; Bot 241 recommended].


Natural Resources Ecology. Principles of plant and animal ecology with emphasis on concepts applied in natural resources; includes interactions between organisms and their physical environment, evolutionary processes, populations, communities, energy flow and ecosystems, and conservation biology. [Range 221, 3 credits, recommended preparation: Biol 202 and 203, prerequisites: Biol 100 or 201, or permission].


Rangeland Ecology. Application of ecological principles in rangeland management; stressing response and behavior of range ecosystems to various kinds and intensity of disturbance and management practice. Two 1-day field trips. [Range 459, 3 credits, prerequisites: a course in general ecology or permission].


Rangeland Vegetation Ecology. Ecological concepts of the nature, dynamics, and distribution of plant communities; secondary successional processes, soil-vegetation relations, and development of vegetation-classification schemes for better land management. [Range ID551 / WSU NATRS 551, 3 credits, prerequisites: plant ecology and permission].


Statistical Ecology. Stochastic models in ecological work; discrete and continuous statistical distributions, birth-death processes, diffusion processes; applications in population dynamics, population genetics, ecological sampling, spatial analysis, and conservation biology. [WLF ID555 / Stat 555 / WSU Stat 555, 3 credits, prerequisites: Math 451 or permission].


Tropical Dendrology/Ecology. Distribution, physiognomy, and climate of world tropical and subtropical vegetation types; identification, ecology, and uses of major pantropical trees and associated vegetation. Cr earned in For 520 by preparation of paper on a specific genus or species. Two lec and 4 hours of lab a week. [For ID-J420/ID-J520 / WSU NATRS 422/522, 3 credits, prerequisite: permission].


World Biomes. A comprehensive survey and analysis of world biomes, which are continental-sized ecosystems. Students will work on team projects with computer-based information technology (geographical information systems, digital media, and interactive multimedia programs) to analyze the structure and function of biomes. This will include a comprehensive analysis of the interrelationships among the environment, flora and fauna, and the major human influences on biomes. [Range 570, 2 credits, prerequisites: a course in general ecology (e.g., Range 221 or Biology 331), general botany (e.g., Botany 311), and an advanced course in community ecology (e.g., Range 459 or Botany 432), or permission].


Supporting Courses
Advanced Plant Molecular Biology. Molecular biology of plant organelles: structure of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes and their replication; transcription, translation, and regulation of organelle genes and their interaction with nuclear genomes; genetic engineering of plant organelles-herbicide resistance, cytoplasmic male sterility. [Bot 556, 3 credits, prerequisites: one semester of biochemistry and/or genetics].


Agroforestry. Interdisciplinary approach to sustainable land management that involves ecological, social, and economic integration of forest and woodland production with grazing and/or agriculture crops. Particularly suited to students from less-developed countries. Additional projects/assignments required for graduate credit. [Range J458/J558 / For J458/J558 / WSU NATRS 504, 2-3 credits].


Agrostology. Classification, distribution, and structures of grasses. One lecture and two 3-hour labs a week; field labs and two 1-day field trips. [Bot ID441 / WSU Bot 441, 3 credits, prerequisites: Biol 203 and Bot 241].


Biological Evolution. Genetic, ecological, and paleontological aspects of evolution, including that of man. [Biol 442, 3 credits, prereq: Biol 202 and 351, or permission].


Biology of Weeds. Biology, ecology, and physiology of weeds with emphasis on crop and weed interactions. Requirements for graduate credit include comprehensive term paper and class presentation on weed-crop interaction. Two lecture and one 3-hour lab a week. [PlSc ID-J410/ID-J510, 3 credits, prerequisites: Bot 311 or permission].


Botany Microtechniques. Methods of treating plant tissues for microscopic exam or histochemical tests. Two 3-hour labs a week. [Bot 364, 3 credits, prerequisites: Biol 203 or permission].


Developmental Plant Anatomy. Origin and development of tissues and organs of vascular plants in relation to heredity, environment, and physiology. Credit earned in Bot 525 by completion of analytical term paper. Two lec and one 3-hour lab a week. [Bot J425/J525, 3 credits, prerequisite: Biol 203].


Experimental Design. Methods of constructing and analyzing designs for experimental investigations; analysis of designs with unequal subclass numbers; concepts of blocking randomization and replication; confounding in factorial experiments; incomplete block designs; response surface methodology. [Stat 507, 3 credits, prerequisite: Stat 401].


Insect Anatomy and Physiology. Organ systems of insects and their functions. A comprehensive term paper and research project reqd for graduate credit. Three lectures and one 3-hour lab a week. [Ent J484/J584, 4 credits, prerequisite: Ent 211].


Mineral Nutrition. Uptake and metabolism of mineral elements in higher plants. Two lec and one 2-hr disc a wk. Cr earned in Bot 515 by completion of term paper on mineral metabolism in higher plants. [Bot J413/J515, 3 credits, prerequisites: Bot 311 and organic chemistry].


Plant Biochemistry. Biochemistry of higher plants with an emphasis on physiology and molecular biology. [MMBB 486, 3 credits, prerequisite: MMBB 380].


Plant Geography. Spatial relations of plants and plant communities as determined by intrinsic factors such as genetics and evolution, and extrinsic factors such as physiography, geology, climate, and climatic change; mechanisms of distribution, discontinuity patterns. One 3-day field trip. [Bot 535, 3 credits, prerequisites: Bot J432/J530 or permission].


Remote Sensing of Environment. Current systems, data acquisition on ground and from remote locations, instrumentation, imagery interpretation and analysis, applications for natural resources. [For ID472 / WSU Soils 472, 3 credits].


Soil Fertility. Principles of soil fertility management; availability of plant nutrients and their relationship to plant growth and fertilization practices. [Soils 446, 3 credits, Prerequisites: Soils 205, 206].


Soil-Plant Relationships in Mineral Nutrition. [Soils WS541, 3 credits].


Soil Physics. Physical properties of soils and their relationships to moisture, aeration, and temperature; cultural practices and erosion problems. Two lec and one 3-hr lab a wk. [Soils 415, 3 credits prerequisites: Soils 205, 206, and Phys 113].


Techniques of Plant Tissue Culture. Isolation and culture of higher plant cells, tissues, and organs. Two 3-hr labs a wk. Cr earned in Bot 510 by completion of special project and term paper. [Bot J401/J510, 2 credits, prerequisite: permission].