Marie de France -- Eliduc

twelfth century


The first woman known to write poetry in French was Marie de France, who lived in the last third of the twelfth century.  As often with medieval authors, the name does not identify her with any specific historical figure, but it indicates that she was a French native.  Her works show that she was associated in some way with the court of King Henry II of England, husband of the famous Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine.  Marie was probably familiar with English as well as Latin and French.  A versatile writer, she produced works in three varieties of literature:  fables, visions of purgatory, and lais.  She may or may not have been the first author of Breton lais and thus have given a designation to the genre.  These were comparatively short narratives based in varying degrees on a story or song circulated by traveling entertainers (jongleurs) from the northwestern province of France known as Brittany.  They were presumably in Breton, originally the Celtic language of Brittany, but none have come down to us.  For French and English poets, a Breton lai was a narrative of moderate length recounting an event remarkable in some way, often associted with the magical or miraculous; most often, the "adventure" involves what we should call romantic love.  Thus Eliduc, the longest of Marie's dozen lais, has been called a story of a man with two wives.  In that respect it recalls the better-known story of Tristan and the two Isoldes.  As Marie rightly says, her tale centers on the two women; it's a pity that her change of the title to Guildeluec and Guilliadun has not prevailed in literary history.
    Marie's handling of the plot precludes any dismissal of Eliduc as a mere villain, an exploiter of women.  The reader's sympahty is engaged by his loyalty to the lord in his home country (where he suffers baseless slander) whom Eliduc returns to help in a time of need -- and also by his faithful service to the lord of the country to which he goes.  He is an honorable knight, exceptionally able and dependable.  There is nothing said to his discredit about his relationship to Guildeluec, his wife in his home country, before he goes into exile.  And there is no doubt that about the reality or strength of his love for Guilliadun in the new country.  This is made quite clear in the narrative -- by his clandestine return to take her with him to his homeland and by his inconsolable grief when he believes her dead -- to say nothing of their later long and happy life together.  On the other hand, it is a selfish affection, and it leads to dishonesty in his treatment of both the princess and her father.  He does not tell her that he already has a wife in his home country, and in taking her away secretly he betrays the trust that her father has clearly placed in him.  We are told that these considerations disturb Eliduc -- but they do not deter him.  The penalty is not long delayed; the storm at sea, the harsh revelation of Eliduc's marital state by the sailor on the ship, and Guilliadun's apparent death from shock.
    In Guilliadun, the author presents a young, inexperienced, and rather naive woman -- but one determined to have what she wants.  From the beginning she is obsessed by her love of Eliduc.  It is she who makes all the advances, she who begs, "Take me with you," at the decisive moment.  (This may serve to mitigate our judgment of Eliduc's conduct, though it does not, in the end, justify it.)  Guilliadun seems undisturbed by her violation of the trust of an apparently affectionate father; he might or might not have forbidden the alliance, but she gives him no chance to say.  As we have seen, retribution strikes the lovers together, but its impact is more drastic for Guilliadun than for Eliduc.  She suffers two shocks at once:  the news that Eliduc already has a wife and the sailor's proposal to throw her overboard as a means of calming the storm.  (In the stress of the moment she cannot know whether this is a real danger or not).  The combined effect of the two is overwhelming; no wonder that it seems fatal -- and a miracle is necessary to restore her to life.
    In Eliduc and Guilliadun the author examines the moral or ethical defects of an exclusive, self-regarding love; in Guideluec she presents a contrast to that kind of love -- a paragon of "good" love.  Guildeluec's affection for Eliduc is geniune and strong.  She grieves at his going into exile; her life in his absence is flawless, but she is distressed when his coldness on his first return might suggest otherwise and offers to answer any possible accusations.  Later, on his second return, she seeks to understand his grief and sorrow to relieve them if she can.  This love is never in conflict with other claims on her loyalty; it never leads her into unjust treatment of other people.  That is, she has it under control, as the others do not have theirs.  When, through her own assiduity, she comes to understand the relationship that has developed between Eliduc and Guilliadun, she does all she can to promote their happiness.  With the help of the weasel's miraculous flower she restores Guilliadun from apparent death to life, reassurers her of Eliduc's devotion, organizes a search for him, and finally reunites the pair.  Then, so that they can be married and live in accord with the laws of God and man, she voluntarily renounces her status as Eliduc's wife and becomes a nun.  Thus she does not allow "sexual" love to undermine or preclude the love that is traditionally known as charity -- that is, devotion to the welfare of others.  It might also be said that here the two are combined:  she loves Eliduc enough to renounce him.


Pronouncing Glossary
Eliduc ay - lee- duk
Guildeluec gheel - duh - lu - ek
Guilliadun ghee - yuh - doon
lais lai


Eliduc (1)

    I am going to give you the full story of a very old Celtic tale, at least as I've been able to understand the truth of it.
    In Brittany there was once a knight called Eliduc.  he was a model of his type, one of the bravest men in the country, and he had a wife of excellent and influential family, as finely bred as she was faithful to him.  They lived happily for several years, since it was a marriage of truth and love.  But then a war broke out and he went away to join the fighting.  There he fell in love with a girl, a ravishingly pretty princess called Guilliadun.  The Celtic name of the wife who stayed at home was Guildeluec, and so the story is called Guildeluec and Guilliadun after their names.  Its original title was Eliduc, but it was changed because it's really about the two women.  Now I'll tell you exactly how it all happened.
    Eliduc's overlord was the king of Brittany, who was very fond of the knight and looked after his interests.  Eliduc served him faithfully -- whenever theking had to go abroad, Eliduc was left in charge of his territories, and kept them safe by his military skills.  He got many favors in return.  He was allowed to hunt in the royal forests.  No gamekeeper, even the most resolute, dared stand in his way or complain about him.  But other people's envy of his good luck did its usual work.  He was slandered and traduced, and brought into bad relations with the king.  Finally he was dismissed form the court without any reason.  Left in the dark, Eliduc repeatedly asked to be allowed to defend himself before the king -- the slanders were lies, he had served the king well, and happily so.  But no answer came from the court.  Convinced he would nevre get a hearing, Eliduc decided to go into exile.  So he went home and called together all his friends.  He told them how things lays with the king, of the anger toward him.  Eliduc had done the best he could and htere was no justice in the royal resentment.  When the plowman gets th rough edge of his master's tongue, the peasants have a proverb:  Never trust a great man's love.  If someone in Eliduc's position is sensible, he puts more trust in the love of his neighbors.  So now he says (2) he's sick of Brittany, he'll cross the sea to England and amuse himself there for a while.  He'll leave his wife at home; have his servants take care of her, along with his friends.
    Once it was made, he kept to this decision.  He fitted himself -- and the ten horsemen he took with him -- out handsomely for the journey.  His friends were very sad to see him go, and as for his wife . . . she accompanied him for the first part of the journey, in tears that she was losing him.  But he swore solemnly that he would stay true to her.  Then he says goodbye and rides straight on to the sea.  There he takes a ship, crosses successfully and arrives at the port of Totnes.  (3)
    There were several kings in that part of England, and they were at war.  Toward Exeter in this country there lived a very powerful old man.  He had no male heir, simply an unmarried daughter.  This explained the present war:  because he had refused her hand to an equal from another dynasty, the other king was putting all his land to the sack.  He had trapped the old kind in one of his fortified cities (4).  No one there had the courage to go out and join combat, general of single, with the invader.  Eliduc heard about all this and decided that since there was war he would stay in those parts instead of going on.  He wanted to help the besieged king, who was getting into worse and worse trouble and faced with ruin and disaster.  He would hire himself out as a mercenary (5).
    He sent messengers to the king, explaining in a letter that he had left his own country and had come to help him; but he was at the king's disposal and if he didn't want Eliduc's services, then Eliduc asked only for safe-conduct through his lands, so that he could go and offer his fighting abilities somewhere else.  When theking saw the messengers, he was delighted and welcomed them warmly.  He summoned the castle commander and ordered that an escort be provided immediately for Eliduc and that he should be brought to him.  Then the king had lodgings arranged.  All that was necessary for a month's stay was also provided.
    The escort were armed and horsed and sent to fetch Eliduc.  He was received with great honor, having made the journey without trouble.  His lodging was with a rich townsman, a decent and well-mannered man who gave up his tapestry-hung best room to the knight.  Eliduc had a good meal prepared and invited to it all the other anxious (6) knights who were quartered in the city.  he forbade his own men, even the most grabbing, to accept any gift or wages for the first forty days.
    On his third day at Exeter the cry ran through the city that the enemy had arrived and were all over the surrounding countryside -- and already preparing an attack on the city gates.  Eliduc heard the uproar from the panicking townspeople and immediately donned armor.  His companions did the same.  There were fourteen other knights capable of fighting in the town, the rest being wounded, or captured.  Seeing Eliduc mount his horse, they go their lodgings and put on their own armor as well.  They won't wait to be called, they'll go out of the gates with him.
    "We'll ride with you, sir," they now say.  "And whatever you do, we'll do the same."
    Eliduc answers.  "My thanks.  Is there anyone here who knows an ambush place?  A defile?  Somewhere where we might catch them hopping?  If we wait here, we'll get a good fight.  But we have no advantage.  Has anyone a better plan?"
    "There's a narrow cart road, sir.  beside that wood by the flax field over there.  When they've got enough loot, they'll return by it.  They ride back carelessly from such work, as a rule.  Like that they're asking for a quick death."
    It could be over in a flash; and much damage done.
    "My friends," said Eliduc, "one thing for certain.  Nothing venture, even when things look hopeless, then nothing gain -- either in war or reputation.  You're all the king's men, you owe him complete loyalty.  So follow me, wherever I go, and do as I do.  I promise you there won't be setbacks if I can help it.  We may not get any loot.  But we'll never be forgotten if we beat the enemy today."
    His confidence spread to the other knights and they led him to the wood.  There they hid by the road and waited for the enemy to return from their raid.  Eliduc had planned everything, showed them how they should charge at the gallop and what to cry.  When the enemy reached the narrow place, Eliduc shouted the battle challenge, then cried to his friends to fight well.  They struck hard, and gave no quarter.  Taken by surprise, the enemy were soon broken and put to flight.  The engagement was brief.  They captured the officer in command and many other knights, whom they entrust to their squires.  Eliduc's side had had twenty-five men, and they took thirty of the enemy.  They also took a great deal of armor, and a quantity of other valuable things.  Now they return triumphantly to the city, full of this splendid victory.  The king was there on a tower, desperatedly anxious for his men.  He complained bitterly, having convinced himself that Eliduc was a traitor and had lost him all his knights.
    They come in a crowd, some laden, others bound -- many more on the return than at the going out, which was why the king was misled and stayed in doubt and suspense.  He orders the city gates closed and the people up on the walls, bows and other weapons at the ready.  But they have no need of them.  Eliduc's party had sent a squire galloping on ahead to explain what had happened.  The man told the king about the Breton mercenary, how he had driven the enemy away, how well he had conducted himself.  There was never a better handler of arms on horseback.  He had personally captured the enemy commander and taken twenty-nine prisoners, besides wounding and killing many others.
    When the king hears the good news, he's beside himself with joy.  He came down from the tower and went to meet Eliduc; then thanked him for all he had done and gave him all the prisoners for ransoming.  Eliduc shared out the armor among the other knights, keeping no more for his own men than three horses that had been allocated to them.  He distributed everything else, even his own rightful part as well, among the prisoners and the other people.
    After this exploit the king made Eliduc his favorite.  He retained him and his companions for a whole year and Eliduc gave his oath of faithful service.  He then became the protector of the king's lands.
    The king's young daughter heard all about Eliduc and his splendid actions -- how good-looking he was, such a proud knight, how civilized and openhanded.  She sent one of her personal pages to request, to beg Eliduc to come and amuse her.  They must talk, get to know each other, and she would be very hurt if he didn't come.  Eliduc replies:  of course he'll come, he looks forward very much to meeting her.  He got on his horse; and taking a servant with him, he goes to chat with the girl.  When he's at the door of her room, he sends the page ahead.  He doesn't barge in, but waits a little, till the page comes back.  Then with gentle expression, sincere face and perfect goo dmanners he addressed the young lady formally and thanked her for having invited him to visit her.  Guilliadun was very pretty, and she took him by the hand and led him to a couch, where they sat and talked of this and that.  She kept stealing looks at him . . . his face, his body, his every expression . . . and said to herself how attractive he was, how close to her ideal man.  Love fires his arrow, she falls headlong in love.  She goes pale, she sighs, but she can't declare herself, in case he despises her for it.
    Eliduc stayed a long time, but in the end took his leave and went away.  Guilliadun was very unwilling to let him go, but there it was.  He returned to his lodgings, unsmiling and very thoughtful.  The girl alarmed him, since she was the king's daughter and he the king's servant.  She had seemed so shy, yet subtly accused him of something.  He feels badly done by (7) -- to have been so long in the country, yet not to have seen her once till now.  Yet when he said that to himself, he felt ashamed.  He remembered his wife, and how he had promised to behave as a husband should.
    Now she had met him, the girl wanted to make Eliduc her lover.  She had never liked a man more -- if only she can, if only he'll agree.  All night she was awake thinking of him, and had neither rest nor sleep.  The next morning she got up at dawn and went to a window and called down to her page.  Then she revealed everything to him.
    "Dear God," she says, "I'm in such a state, I've fallen into such a trap.  I love the new mercenary, Eliduc.  Who's fought so brilliantly.  I haven't slept a wink all night, my eyes just wouldn't shut.  If he's really in love with me, if he'll only show he's serious, I'll do anything he likes.  And there's so much to hope for -- he could be king here one day.  I'm mad about him.  He's so intelligent, so easy-mannered.  If he doesn't love me, I'll die of despair."
    When he'd heard all she had to say, the young page gave her good advice:  no need to give up hope so soon.
    "My lady, if you're in love with him, then let him know it.  Send him a belt or a ribbon -- or a ring.  To see if it pleases him.  If he's happy to accept the gift, looks glad to have heard from you, then you're in.  He loves you.  And show me an emperor who wouldn't dance for joy if he knew you fancied him."
    The girl mulled over this advice.
    "But how shall I know just by a gift whether he really wants me?  You don't realize.  A gentleman has to accept, whether he likes the sender or not.  One has to take such things with good grace.  I should loathe it if he made fun of me.  But perhaps you could learn something from his expression.  So get ready.  Quickly.  And go."
    "I am ready."
    "Take him this gold ring.  And here, give him my belt.  And be very warm when you greet him for me."
    The page turned away, leaving her in such a state that she very nearly calls him back.  Nevertheless she lets him go -- and then begins to rave to herself.
    "Oh God, I've fallen in love with a foreigner!  I don't even know if he's of good family.  Whether he won't suddenly disappear.  I shall be left in despair.  I'm insane to have made it all so obvious.  I'd never even spoken with him before yesterday, and now I'm throwing myself at him.  I think he'll just despise me.  No he won't, if he's nice he'll like me for it.  It's all in the lap of the gods now.  If he doesn't care for me at all, I shall feel such a fool.  I'll never be happy again, as long as I live."
    Meanwhile, as she agonized on like that, the page rode fast on his way.  He found Eliduc and gave him in private the kind of greetings the girl had asked.  Then he handed him the little ring and the belt.  The knight had thanked him, then put the ring on his finger and fastened the belt (8) around his waist.  But he said nothing else to the page, asked him nothing -- except that he offered him his own ring and belt in return.  But the page didn't accept them and went away back to his young mistress.  He found her in her room; then passed on Eliduc's return of greetings and thanks.
    "For pity's sake, don't hide the truth.  Does he really love me?"
    "I think so.  He wouldn't deceive you.  In my opinion he's playing polite and being shrewd -- he knows how to hide his feelings.  I said hallo to him for you and gave him the presents.  He put the belt on himself, and was rather careful to get it right.  Then the ring on his finger.  I didn't say anything else to him.  Or he to me."
    "But did he realized what it meant?  Because if he didn't, I'm lost!"
    "I honestly don't know.  But if you must have my solemn opinion, then, well, since he didn't turn up his nose at what you sent, he doesn't exactly . . . hate you?"
    "Stop teasing me, you cheeky boy!  I'm perfectly well aware he doesn't hate me.  How could I ever hurt him?  Except by loving him so much.  But if he does, he deserves to die.  Until I've spoken with him myself, I won't have anything to do with him.  Either through you or anyone else.  I'll show him myself how wanting him tears me apart.  But if only I knew how long he was staying here!"
    "Lady, the king has hum under contract for a year.  That ought to be time enough to show him how you feel?"
    When she heard Eliduc wasn't going away, Guilliadun was in ecstasy:  how wonderful that he must stay!  What she didn't know was the torment Eliduc had been in from the moment he set eyes on her.  Fear had dealt him a cruel hand -- that promise to his wife when he left home, that he'd never look at another woman.  Now his heart was in a vise.  He wanted to stay faithful.  But nothing could hide the fact that he had hopelessly fallen for Guilliadun and her prettiness.  To see her again and talk with her, kiss her and hold her in his arms . . . yet he could never show her this longing, which would disgrace him -- on the one hand for breaking his promise to his wife, on the other because of his relationship with the king.  He was torn in two; then mounted his horse, and wavered no more.  He calls his friends to him, then goes to the castle to speak to the king.  If it can be managed, he will see the girl -- and that is why he hurries so.
    The king has just risen from table and gone to his daughter's rooms, and now he's begun to play chess with a knight from overseas.  On the other side of the chessboard, his daughter had to show the moves.  Eliduc came forward.  The king greeted him kindly and made Eliduc sit beside him.  He spoke to his daughter.
    "My dear, you must get to know this gentleman.  And pay him every honor.  There's no finer knight in the country."
    The girl was delighted to hear this command from her father.  She stands up, invites Eliduc to sit with her well away from the others.  Both are struck dumb with love.  She dared not explain herself to him, and he was afraid to speak as well . . . except to thank her for the presents she had sent him:  he had never liked a present so much.  She tells him she is pelased that he is pleased.  Then suddenly why she sent him the ring, and her belt as well -- that her body was his, she couldn't resist, she loved him to madness, she gave herself to his every wish.  If she couldn't have him, he knew, he must know it was true, no other man would ever have her.
    Now it was Eliduc's turn.
    "Princess, I'm so happy that you love me.  All joy.  That you should like me so much -- how could I feel otherwise?  I shan't ever forget it.  You know I'm promised to your father for a year, under oath that I shan't leave till the war's ended.  Then I shall go home.  Provided you'll let me.  I don't want to stay here."
    "Eliduc, I'm so grateful for your frankness.  You're so honest, you know such a lot.  Long before you go you'll have decided what to do with me.  I love you, I trust you more than anything else in the world."
    They knew now that they were sure of each other; and on that occasion no more was said.
    Eliduc goes back to his lodgings, enchanted at how well things have turned out.  He can talk as often as he likes with Guilliadun, the're wildly in love.
    He now occupied himself so well with the war that he captured the enemy king, and liberated the old king's country.  His military reputation grew, as did that of his ingenuity and public generosity.  ON this side of his life everything went very well.
    But during this same time the king of Brittany had sent three messengers over the sea to find Eliduc.  Things at home were in a very bad way, and getting worse.  All his strong points were under siege, his lands being put to the sword.  With increasing bitterness, the king regretted having driven Eliduc away.  His judgment had been distorted by the malicious advice he had listened to.  Already he had thrown the treacherous clique who had blackened Eliduc and intrigued against him into permanent exile.  Now, in his hour of great need, he commanded, he summoned, he begged Eliduc -- in the name of the trust that had existed between theme ever since the knight first paid homage to him -- to come and save the situation.  He wa sin the direst straits.
    Eliduc read this news.  It distressed him deeply.  He thought of Guilliadun.  He loved her now to the anguished depths of his being, and she felt the same for him.  But there had been no madness between them -- nothing improper, theirs was no casual affair.  Caressing and talking, giving each other lovely presents -- the passionate feeling between them hadn't gone beyond that.  She kept it so on purpose, because of what she hoped.  She thought he'd be entirely hers, and hers alone, if she played her cards right.
    She did not know there was a wife.
    "Alas," thinks Eliduc to himself, "I've gone astray.  I've stayed too long here.  It was cursed, the day I first set eyes on this country.  I've fallen  head over heels in love.  And she with me.  If I have to say farewell to her now, one of us will die.  Perhaps both.  And yet I must go, the king of Brittany's letter commands it, and there's my promise to him.  To say nothing of the one I swore to my wife.  I must pull myself together.  I can't stay any longer.  I have no alternative.  If I were to marry Guilliadun, the Church would never stand for it.  In all ways it's a mess.  And oh God, to think of never seeing her again!  I must be open with her, whatever the cost, I'll do whatever she wants, whichever way she sees it.  Her father has got a decent peace, no one wants war with him anymore.  I'll plead the king of Brittany's need and ask for permission to leave before the day's out.  It was what was agreed -- I'd go to him as soon as we had peace here.  I'll see Guilliadun and explain the whole business.  Then she can tell me what she wants, and I'll do my best to make it come true."
    Without further delay, Eliduc went to the king to seek leave.  He explained the situation in Birttany and showed him the letter the king there had sent him -- the cry for help.  The old king reads the command and realizes he will lose Eliduc.  He is very upset and worried.  He offered him a share of his possessions, a third of his heritage, his treasury -- if he'll only stay, he'll do so much for him that Eliduc will be eternally grateful.
    But Eliduc stayed firm.
    "At this juncture, since my king's in danger and he's taken such trouble to find me, I must go to his assistance.  He puts all his household possessions at Eliduc's disposal -- gold and silver, hounds and horses and beautiful silk.  Eliduc took no more than he needed.  Then he politely told the king that he would like very much to speak with his daughter, if it were allowed.
    "Consent is a pleasure," said the king.
    Eliduc sends a young lady ahead to open the door of Guilliadun's room.  Then he goes in to speak with her.  When she saw him, she cried out his name and passionately clung to him.  Then they discussed his problem, and he explained briefly the necessity for his journey.  But when he had made it all clear, and yet pointedly still not asked for her permission to leave, for his freedom, she nearly fainted with the shock.  Her face went white.  When Eliduc sees the agony she is in, he begins to go mad.  He keeps kissing her mouth and begins to cry in sympathy.  At last he takes her in his arms and holds her until she recovers.
    "You sweetest thing, oh God, listen -- you're life and death to me, you're my whole existence.  That's why I've come.  So that we can talk about it, and trust each other.  I must go home.  I've got your father's permission.  But I'll do whatever you want.  Whatever may happen to me."
    "Then take me with you, if you don't want to stay!  If you don't, I'll kill myself.  Nothing good or happy will ever happen to me again."
    Gently Eliduc tells her how much he loves her; how beautiful she is.  "But I've solemnly sworn to obey your father.  If I take you away with me I'll be breaking my oath to him before its term is over.  I swear, I promise you with all my heart that if you'll let me leave you now for a while, but name a day on which I must come back, then nothing on earth will stop me doing so -- as long as I am alive and in good health.  My life's entirely in your hands."
    She loved him so much.  She gave him a final date, a day by which he must return and take her away.  They parted in tears and misery, exchanging their gold rings and tenderly kissing each other.
    Eliduc rode to the sea.  The wind was good and the crossing quick.  When he gets home, the king of Brittany is overjoyed, and so are Eliduc's relations and friends and everyone else -- and especially his wife, who remained as attractive and worthy of him as ever.  But all the time Eliduc stayed turned in on himself, because of the shock of his love affair in England.  Nothing he saw gave him any pleasure, he wouldn't smile -- he'll never be happy till he sees Guilliadun again.  His wife was very depressed by his secretive behavior, since she had no idea what caused it.  She felt sorry for herself; kept asking if he hadn't heard from someone that she'd misbehaved while he was abroad.  She'll willingly defend herself before the world, whenever he wants.
    "My lady, no one's accused you of anything bad.  But I've solemnly sworn to the king in the country where I've been that I shall return to him.  He has great need of me.  I told him I'd be on my way within a week, as soon as the king of Brittany had peace.  I've got a huge task ahead of me before I can return.  I can't take pleasure in anything at all until I've got back there.  I will not break promises."
    And that was all he told his wife.  He went to join the king of Brittany and helped him greatly.  The king adopted his strategy and saved his kingdom.  But when the date approached that Guilliadun had named, Eliduc intervened to make peace.  He agreed to all the terms the enemy wanted, (9) then he got ready to travel and picked his companions -- two nephews he was fond of and one of his pages, a boy who had known what was going on and had carried messages between Eliduc and Guilliadun.  Besides them, only hissquires; he didn't want anyone else.  He made these companions swear to keep the secret.
    He waits no longer, puts to sea and soon arrives in Totnes.  At last he was back where he was so longed for.  Eliduc was very cunning.  He found an inn well away from the harbor, since he was very anxious not to be seen . . . traced and recognized.  He got his page ready and sent him to Guilliadun to tell her he had returned and kept strictly to his promise.  By night, when darkness had fallen, she must slip out of the city:  the page would escort her and Eliduc come to met her.  The boy changed into a disguise and went all the way on foot straight to Exeter.  He cleverly found a way to get into her private apartments; then greeted the princess and told her her lover had come back.  He found her sad and hopeless, but when she hears the news she breaks down and begins to cry, then kisses and kisses the page.  He told her she must leave with him that evening and they spent the whole day planning their escape in every detail.
    When night had come, they stole cautiously out of the city alone together.  They were terrified someone might see them.  She wore a silk dress delicately embroidered in gold and a short cloak.
    About a bowshot from the city gate there was a copse enclosed in a fine garden.  Eliduc, who had come to fetch her, waited under the hedge.  The page led her to the place.  Eliduc sprang down from his horse and kissed her:  such joy to meet again.  He helped her onto a horse, then mounted his own and took her bridle.  They rode quickly away, back to the  port of Totnes, and boarded the ship at once:  no other passengers but Eliduc's men and his beloved Guilliadun.  They had favorable winds and settled weather, but when they came near the coast of Brittany they ran into a storm.  A contrary wind drove them out away from the harbor.  Then the mast split and broke, and they lost all the sails.  They prayed in despair -- to God, to St. Nicholas and St. Clement -- to OUr Lady, that she might invoke Christ's protection for them, save them from drowning and bring them to land.  Backward and forward they were driven along the coast, the storm raging around them.  One of the sailors began to shout.
    "What are we doing?  MY lord, it's the girl you've brought aboard who's going to drown us all.  We'll never reach land.  You have a proper wife at home.  But now you want another woman.  It's against God and the law.  Against all decency and religion.  So let's throw her in the sea, and save our skins."
    Eliduc hears what the man cries, and nearly goes beserk.
    "You son of a whore, you fiend, you rat -- shut your mouth!  If she goes into the sea, I'll make you pay for it!"
    He held Guilliadun in his arms, gave her what comfort he could.  She was seasick, and riven by what she'd just heard:  that her lover had a wife at home.  She fainted and fell to the deck, deathly pale; and stayed like that, without breath or sign of consciousness.  Eliduc knew she was only there because of him, and sincerely thought she was dead.  He was in agony.  He stood up and rushed at the sailor and struck him down with an oar.  The man collapsed to the deck and Eliduc kicked the body over he side, where the waves took it away.  As soon as he had done that, he went to the helm.  There he steered and held the ship so well that they came to the harbor and land.  When they were safely in, he cast anchor and had the gangway let down.  Still Guilliadun lay unconscious, her only appearance that of death.  Eliduc wept without stop -- if he had had his way, he would have been dead with her.  He asked his companions their advice, where he could carry her.  He refused toleave her side until she was buried with every honor and full ritual, and laid to rest in holy ground.  She was a king's daughter, it was her due.  But his men were at a loss and could suggest nothing.  Eliduc began to think for himself.  His own house was not far from the sea, not a day's ride away.  There was a forest around it, some thirty miles across.  A saintly hermit had lived there for forty years and had a chapel.  Eliduc had often spoken with him.
    I'll take her there, Eliduc said to himself, I'll bury her in his chapel.  Then bestow land and found an abbey or monastery.  Nuns or canons, who can pray for her every day, may God have mercy on her soul.
    He had horses brought and ordered everyone to mount, then made them promise they would neer betray him.  He carried Guilliadun's body in front of him, on his own horse.  They took the most direct road and soon entered the forest.  At last they came to the chapel, and called and knocked.  But no voice answered and the door stayed closed.  Eliduc made one of his men climb and open it.  They found a fresh tomb:  the prue and saintly hermit had died that previous week.  They stood there sad and dismayed.  The men wanted to prepare the grave in which Eliduc must leave Guilliadun forever, but he made them withdraw outside the chapel.
    "This isn't right.  I need advice first from the experts on how I can glorify this place with an abbey or a convent.  For now we'll lay Guilliadun before the altar and leave her in God's care."
    He had bedding brought and they quickly made a resting place for the girl; then laid her there, and left her for dead.  But when Eliduc came to leave the chapel, he thought he would die of pain.  He kissed her eyes, her face.
    "Darling heart, may it please God I'll never bear arms again or live in the outer world.  I damn the day you ever saw me.  Dear gentle thing, why did you come with me?  Not even a queen could have loved me more trustingly.  More deeply.  My heart breaks for you.  On the day I bury you, I'll enter a monastery.  Then come here evrey day and weep all my desolation out on your tomb."
    Abruptly then he turned from the girl's body and closed the chapel door.
    He had sent a messenger on ahead to tell his wife he was coming, but tired and worn.  Full of happiness at the news, she dressed to meet him, and welcomed him back affectionately.  But she had little joy of it.  Eliduc gave her not a single kind word.  No one dared ask why.  he stayed like that for a couple of days -- each early morning, having heard mass, he took the road to the forest and the chapel where Guilliadun lay . . . still unconscious, without breathing, no sign of life.  Yet something greatly puzzled him:  she had hardly lost color, her skin stayed pink and white, only very faintly pale.  In profound despair, Eliduc wept and prayed for her soul.  Then having done that, he returned home.
    The following day, when he came out of the church after mass, there was a spy -- a young servant his wife had promised horses and arms to if he could follow at a distance and see which way his master went.  The lad did as she ordered.  He rides into the forest after Eliduc without being seen.  He watched well, saw how Eliduc went into the chapel, and heard the state he was in.  As soon as Eliduc came out, the servant went home and told his mistress everything -- all the sounds of anguish her husband had made inside the chapel.  From being resentful, she now felt touched.
    "We'll go there as soon as possible and search the place.  Your master must be off soon to court, to confer with the king.  The hermit died some time ago.  I know Eliduc was very fond of him, but that wouldn't make him behave like this.  Not show such grief."
    Thus for the time being she left the mystery.
    That very same afternoon Eliduc set off to speak with the king of Brittany.  His wife took the servant with her and he led her to the hermitage chapel.  As soon as she went in she saw the bed and the girl lying  on it, as fresh as a first rose.  She pulled back the covering and revealed the slender body, the slim arms, the white hands with their long and delicately smooth-skinned fingers.  She knew the truth at once -- why Eliduc  had his tragic face.  She called the servant forward and showed him the miserable corpse.
    "Do you see this girl?  She's as lovely as a jewel.  She's my husband's mistress.  That's why he's so miserable.  Somehow it doesn't shock me.  So pretty  . . . to have died so young.  I feel only pity for her.  And I still love him.  It's a tragedy for us all."
    She began to cry, in sympathy for Guilliadun.  But as she sat by the deathbed with tears in her eyes a weasel darts out from beneath the altar.  The servant struck it with a stick to stop it running over the corpse.  He killed it, then threw the small body into themiddle of the chancel floor.  It had not been there long when its mate appeared and saw where it lay.  The living animal ran around the dead one's head and touched it several times with a foot.  But when this failed, it seemed distressed.  Suddenly it ran out of the chapel into the forest grass.  There it picked a deep red flower with its teeth, then carried it quickly back and placed it in the mouth of the weasel the servant had killed.  Instantly the animal came back to life.  The wife had watched all this, and how she cried out to the servant.
    "Catch it!  Throw, boy!  Don't let it escape!"
    He hurled his stick and hit the weasel.  The blossom fell from between its teeth.  Eliduc's wife went and picked it up, then returned and placed the exquisite red flower in Guilliadun's mouth.  For a second or two nothing happened, but then the girl stirred, sighed, and opened her eyes (10).
    "Good lord," she murmured, "how long I've slept!"
    When the wife heard her speak, she thanked heaven.  Then she asked Guilliadun who she was.
    "My lady, I'm British born, the daughter of a king there.  I fell hopelessly in love with a knight, a brave mercenary called Eliduc.  He eloped with me.  But he was wicked, he deceived me.  He had a wife all the time.  He never told me, never gave me the least hint.  When I heard the truth, I fainted with the agony of it.  Now he's brutally left me helpless here in a foreign country.  He tricked me, I don't know what will become of me.  Women are mad to trust in men."
    "My dear," said the lady, "he's been quite inconsolable.  I can assure you of that.  He thinks you're dead, he's been mad with grief.  He's come here to look at you every day.  But obviously you've always been unconscious.  I'm his real wife, adn I'm deeply sorry for him.  He was so unhappy . . . I wanted to find out where he was disappearing to, so I had him followed, and that's how I found you.  And now I'm glad you're alive after all.  I'm going to take you away with me.  And give you back to him.  I'll tell the world he's not to blame for anything.  Then I shall take the veil."
    She spoke so comfortingly that Guilliadun went home with her.  The wife made the servant get ready and sent him after Eliduc.  He rode hard and soon came up with him.  The lad greeted Eliduc respectfully, then tells him the whole story.  Eliduc leaps on a horse, without waiting for his friends.  That same night he was home, and found Guilliadun restored to life.  He gently thanks his wife, he's in his seventh heaven, he's never known such happiness.  He can't stop kissing Guilliadun; and she keeps kissing him shyly back.  They can't hide their joy at being reunited.  When Eliduc's wife saw how things stood, she told her husband her plans.  She asked his formal permission for a separation, she wished to become a nun and serve God.  He must give her some of his land and she would found an abbey on it.  And then he must marry the girl he loved so much, since it was neither decent nor proper, besides being against the law, to live with two wives.  Eliduc did not try to argue with her; he'll do exactly as she wants and give her the land.
    In the same woodlands near the castle that held the hermitage chapel he had a church built, and all the other offices of a nunnery.  Then he settled a great deal of property and other possessions on it.  When everything was ready, his wife took the veil, along with thirty other nuns.  Thus she established order and her new way of life.
    Eliduc married Guilliadun.  The wedding was celebrated with great pomp and circumstance, and for a long time they lived happily together in a perfect harmony of love.  They gave a great deal away and performed many good deeds, so much so that in the end they also turned religious.  After great deliberation and forethought, Eliduc had a church built on the other side of his castle and endowed it with all his money and the greater part of his estate.  He appointed servants and other religious people to look after the order and its buildings.  When all was ready, he delays no more:  he surrenders himself with his servants and other religious people to omnipotent God.  And guilliadun, whom he loved so much, he sent to join his first wife.  Guildeluec received her as if she were her own sister and did her great honor, teaching her how to serve God and live the religious life of the order.  They prayed for the salvation of Eliduc's soul, and in his turn he prayed for the both of them.  He found out by messengers how they were, how they comforted each other.  All three tried in their own ways to love God with true faith; and in the end, by the mercy of God in whom all truth reposes, each died a peaceful death.
    The noble Celts composed this story long ago to enshrine the strange advanture of these three.  May it never be forgotten!


(1)  Translated by John Fowles.  The ellipses do not indicate omissions from this text.
(2)  The shifts to the narrative present (like those into dialogue) are all in the original [translator's note].
(3)  On the southern coast of England.
(4)  The text says "in a castle," but it seems clear that Exeter, then a walled city, is meant.  Marie would have known of its importance in West Saxon times and of William the Conqueror's siege of 1068 [translator's note].
(5)  . . . en soudees remaneir.  The knight soudoyer has to be understood (at least in romance) in a far more honorable -- and honor driven -- sense than in the contemporary or even the Renaissance use of "mercenary."  Perhaps the Japanese samurai is the best equivalent [translator's note].  Similiarly, the Knight of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales was an honorable mercenary.
(6)  Because of their precarious or uncertain status.
(7)  The Old French is less specific:  it is too bad it turned out they had not met.
(8)  The fashionable belt of the Middle Ages had links, with a hook at one end.  It was fashioned with a free end left hanging at the side.
(9)  The Old French says that he reconciled the enemy (to the king).
(10)  Abundant parallels from folklore represent an animal as having the gift of immortality -- or being able to restore life after apparent death.