CSS 573   Decision-Making for Watershed Management University of Idaho - College of Natural Resources
Citation Guide
Citation Guide
 © 2005 University of Idaho
 All rights reserved.

 Web Design - CTI

Citation Style Guide
For CSS 573


This guide suggests a format to cite literature in documents prepared for CSS 573. You can use this format or you can use the format of another natural resource publication. If citations in your document are not consistent, you will be asked to furnish the format and style that you followed. This format is based on: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.

Citation examples are provided in Name-Year format.  Sources should be listed alphabetically in the Literature Cited section at the end of the proposal or project plan. These items are referred to in the body of the proposal or project plan text using the styles listed below.

For an APA Style Guide as of 2010, go to: Williams College APA Guide


Writing Guide

If you want to refresh your memory on tips for well-written prose, see:


Format -- Tables and Figures


Table 3.  Examples of Criteria & Indicators – Analysis of Current Situation in Matrix Form.


(For Time Period 2 – 2005)


  • Hectares of total pileated woodpecker habitat
  • Hectares of land in Sedimentation Risk classes
  • Hectares of small trees for thinning to reduce fire risk
  • Hectares of land in High, Med, and Low Fire Risk classes



  • Hectares of harvestable timber ELU’s
  • Hectares of roadless area
  • Low, med, high economic diversity for each of 6 towns


Distributional (Communities of Impact)

  • % Wood/timber jobs for 6 towns
  • % Recreation jobs for 6 towns



  • Low, med, high community autonomy for each of 6 towns




 Figure 2.  The number of redds, the spawning beds of the summer chinook salmon, in the South Fork of Salmon and the Secesh Rivers, 1957 to 1984.  From Howell et al. 1985.

                                                    [Go to Top of Page]


Smith R.L. 1974. Ecology and field biology. Second edition. Harper & Row Publ., New York.

Hitchcock, C.L., and A. Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Citing the above sources in your text would appear as:

(Smith 1974)
(Hitchcock and Cronquist 1973)           
[Go to Top of Page]

Book Chapter

A chapter in an edited book:
Severson, K.E. 1981. Plains habitats, p. 459-485. In: O.C. Wallmo (ed.), Mule and black-tailed deer of North America. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.

A chapter in a book written by one author:
Miller, G.T. Jr. 1994. Politics and environment. p. 658-682. In: Living in the environment. Eighth Edition. International Thomson Publ., Belmont, CA.

Citing the above sources in your text would appear as:
(Severson 1981)
(Miller 1994)                                   
[Go to Top of Page]

Journal Article

Johnson D.L., and W.E. Lynch, Jr. 1992. Panfish use of and angler success at evergreen tree, brush, and stake-bed structures. North American Journal of Fish Management, 12:222-229.

Bourke, L., and A. Luloff. 1994. Attitudes toward the management of nonindustrial private forest land. Society and Natural Resources, 7:445–457.

Pritz, R.K., K.L. Launchbaugh, and C.A. Taylor, Jr. 1997. Effects of breed and dietary experience on juniper consumption by goats. Journal of Range Management, 50:600-606.

NOTE: If the journal page numbers in each issue start at page 1, then include the volume number in your citation (see example below).

Eastin, I.L., S.J. Fleishman, and S.R. Shook. 2000. Change of plans: Material substitution in the residential construction industry. Engineered Wood Journal. 3(2):34-37.

Citing the above sources in your text would appear as:
(Johnson and Lynch 1992)
(Bourke and Luloff 1994)
(Pritz et al. 1997)                            
[Go to Top of Page]

Government Documents:
Technical Report or Experiment Station Bulletin

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter V., F.C. Golet, E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Report No. FWS/OBS/-79/31.Washington, D.C.

Keegan, C.E. III, K. Gebert, S.R. Shook, F.G. Wagner, and K. Blatner. 2001. Idaho’s Wood Products Industry: Current conditions and forecast - 2001, Exp. Sta. Bull. 75, Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, Moscow, ID.

National Research Council. 1977. Nutrient requirements of poultry. Seventh edition. National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.

Chojnacky, D.C. 1986. Pinyon-juniper site quality and volume growth equations for Nevada. USDA Forest Service Research Paper INT-372. Washington, D.C.

Citing the above sources in your text would appear as:
(Cowardin et al. 1979)
(Keegan et al. 2001)
(National Research Council 1977)
(Chojnakcy 1986)
(Eastin et al. 2000)                          
[Go to Top of Page]

Dissertation or Thesis

Dettmers, J.M. 1995. Assessing the trophic cascade in reservoirs: The role of an introduced predator. Dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Citing the above source in your text would appear as:
(Dettmers 1995)                               [Go to Top of Page]

Conference Paper

Meyer, B. and K. Hermanns. 1985. Formaldehyde release from pressed wood products. p. 101-106. In: V. Turoski (ed.) Formaldehyde: Analytical Chemistry and Toxicology. Proceedings of a symposium at the 187th meeting of the American Chemical Society. Published by American Chemical Society.

Dickson, J. G. 1978. Forest bird communities of the bottomland hardwoods. p. 66-73. In: R. M. DeGraaf (tech. coordinator) Proceedings of workshop on management of southern forests for nongame birds. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report SE-14.

Citing the above sources in your text would appear as:
(Meyer and Hermanns 1985)
(Dickson 1978)                                
[Go to Top of Page]

Personal Communication

Krumpe, E. 2001. Personal Communication. Professor, Resource Recreation and Tourism Department at the University of Idaho.  July 4, 2001.

Citing the above source in your text would appear as:
(Krumpe, pers. comm.)                       
[Go to Top of Page]

Electronic Journal Article

Slater, P.J.B. and A.E. Jones A.E. 1995. Timing of songs and distance call learning in zebra finches. Anim Behav [serial online] 49:123-248. <http://journals.ohiolink.edu/etext/>

Hess, K., Jr. and J.L. Holechek. 1995. An agenda for rangeland reform. Policy Analysis [serial online] No.235. <http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/policyanalysis.html>

Citing the above sources in your text would appear as:
(Slater and Jones 1995)
(Hess and Holechek 1995)                 
[Go to Top of Page]

Electronic Database or Internet Resource

Personal Website:

Shook, S.R. 2001. Homepage. <http://www.uidaho.edu/~shook/> Accessed 2001 Sept. 21.

General Website:

Ecoresults. 2001. Working together to heal the West. <http://www.ecoresults.org>  Accessed 2001 Sept. 21.

Citing the above sources in your text would appear as:
(Shook 2001)
(Ecoresults 2001)                            
[Go to Top of Page]

NOTE: The specific format for citing web-based information is still being developed for many publications. The important things to include are Author, URL or web address, and date accessed. Try to determine the date the document was published; if that is not possible, use the data accessed as the date of the publication.

GIS Database

University of Idaho, [date of data]. [data name, i.e. Vegetation data], South Fork of the Salmon River Case Study database, Remote Sensing and GIS lab, Moscow, Idaho.