Indian Reorganization Act of 1934


US Citizenship conferred on all American Indians in 1924, rendering Indians with dual citizenship, that of their own Nation and that of the United States.

Cultural Pluralism and John Collier (Commissioner of Bureau of Indian Affairs 1933 - 45)

Merriam Report of 1928 (detailed 800 page study of the conditions of the American Indian)

Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally, the Indian New Deal, was a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives.  The IRA was perhaps the most significant initiative of John Collier Sr.

The act did not require tribes to adopt a constitution. However, if the tribe chose to do so, the constitution had to:

Evidently, some of these restrictions were eliminated by the Native American Technical Corrections Act of 2003.

The act slowed the practice of assigning tribal lands to individual tribal members and reduced the loss, through the practice of "checkerboarding" land sales to non-members within tribal areas, of native holdings. Owing to this Act and to other actions of federal courts and the government, over two million acres of land were returned to various tribes in the first 20 years after passage of the act.

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